1 6 Задаем вопросы преподавателю




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      Оглавление
Предисловие.....................................................................................................10
1 В аудитории....................................................................................................13
1.1 Управляем учебным процессом................................................................15
1.1.1 Отдаем распоряжения...................................................................................15
1.1.2 Проводим занятие........................................................................................15
1.1.3 Готовимся выполнять задание или домашнюю работу..................................16
1.1.4 Беседуем с учителем своего ребенка............................................................17
1.1.5 Возобновляем занятия после отсутствия......................................................17
1.1.6 Задаем вопросы преподавателю...................................................................18
1.1.7 Задаем вопросы во время занятия................................................................19
1.1.8 Выясняем, какие экзамены нужно сдавать....................................................19
1.1.9 Выясняем суть задания................................................................................20
1.1.10 Спрашиваем о полученной оценке..............................................................21
1.1.11 Успокаиваем студента.................................................................................21
1.1.12 Призываем студента к порядку...................................................................22
1.1.13 Просим студента сесть как следует.............................................................23
1.1.14 Переспрашиваем студента..........................................................................24
1.1.15 Просим сосредоточиться.............................................................................24
1.1.16 Выясняем, что непонятно...........................................................................25
1.1.17 Общаемся во время занятия.......................................................................26
1.1.18 Пропускаем занятия....................................................................................26
1.1.19 Во время занятия.......................................................................................26
1.1.20 Предлагаем помочь....................................................................................28
1.1.21. Даем студенту команду или поручение......................................................28
1.1.22 Ставим оценку студенту.............................................................................29
1.1.23 Обсуждаем книгу........................................................................................31
1.1.24 Обсуждаем проблемы письма.....................................................................32
1.1.25 Даем указания............................................................................................32
1.1.26 Начинаем разговор.....................................................................................33
1.1.27 Продолжаем разговор................................................................................34
1.1.28 Завешаем разговор.....................................................................................35
1.1.29 Разговариваем строго .................................................................................35
1.1.30 Другие ситуации.........................................................................................36
1.2  Юмор рядом с нами........................................................................................37
1.2.1 Шутим на занятиях......................................................................................37
1.2.2 Обращаемся к учителю................................................................................47
1.2.3 Пишем объявление......................................................................................48
1.3 Разыгрываем сцены....................................................................................51
Пьеса 1.3.1   Обсуждаем рассказ.............................................................................51
Пьеса 1.3.2   Делаем перекличку.............................................................................52
Пьеса 1.3.3   Готовимся выполнять задание или домашнюю работу.........................54
Пьеса 1.3.4  Беседуем с учителем своего ребенка..................................................55
Пьеса 1.3.5   Возобновляем занятия после отсутствия.............................................58
Пьеса 1.3.6   Задаем вопросы преподавателю.........................................................60
Пьеса 1.3.7   Встреча после каникул.......................................................................62
2 Пишем письмо...............................................................................................65
3 Пишем доклад на тему ................................................................................77

4 Пишем статью...............................................................................................87
5 Участвуем в конференции.........................................................................105
6 Составляем резюме....................................................................................119
7  А как у нас с грамматикой?.............................................................................131
8 Толковый словарь английских предлогов...............................................177
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЯ
Слушаем учителя................................................................................................235
Учимся в младших классах.................................................................................236
Учимся в старших классах..................................................................................239
Учимся в университете.......................................................................................241
Работаем на компьютере....................................................................................243
Пользуемся техникой в офисе.............................................................................244
Пользуемся микроскопом....................................................................................249
Занимаемся математикой....................................................................................250
Оказываем первую помощь.................................................................................255
Работаем в химической лаборатории..................................................................256
Выясняем родственные связи.............................................................................258
Пользуемся техникой в доме..............................................................................259
Разбираемся с временами...................................................................................260
Таблица неправильных глаголов........................................................................264
СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ........................................................................................270

1. В аудитории
1.  In the Classroom

1.1 Classroom Phrases
1.1.1 Classroom activities
All of the following expressions are used by an instructor / a teacher while he / she is
speaking to his / her students during the lessons.
1.   Open / Close / Draw the curtains. (to draw = to close)
2.   Open / Shut the door / the window, please.
3.   Bring me some chalk / a chalk, please.
4.   Fetch some chalk / a chalk, please.
5.   Take out your books / pens / homework / copybooks / etc.
6.   Put away your things.
7.   Tidy (up) your desks / the classroom.
8.   Clean the board / chalkboard / whiteboard / blackboard.
9.   Clear your desks.
10. Take everything off your desks.
11. Take out a clean sheet of paper (to write on).
12. Get a sheet of paper to write on.
1.1.2 Conducting a lesson
1.   Plug in the (tape) recorder / CD (player) / DVD (player) / TV, please.
2.   Turn on / off the recorder / CD (player) / DVD (player) / TV.
3.   Switch on / off the recorder / CD (player) / DVD (player) / TV.
4.   Put the cassette / CD / DVD in its box.
5.   Listen.
6.   Repeat after me.
7.   Say after me.
8.   Like this. Ready? Off we go (usually with children).
9.   Let’s start. All together. Now in groups. Now individually. Now you, James.
10. Look at your book(s). Don’t look at me. Look at picture / page number ...
11. Turn to page 31. / Look at page 31.
12. (Everybody,) Listen to me / the guest / the CD / the film.
13. Do your best. (when a student does not know the answer to a question, during a test)
14. (Now) It’s time for ...
15. That’s right / wrong / correct / incorrect / not quite right.
      (Wrong’ is strong and may hurt overly sensitive students; the last option is the softest.)
16. You’ve made a mistake.
17. Who wants to add (sth)? / Does anybody want to add anything?
18. Who can lend (e.g. Bob a pen)?
15

11. Show some respect, people / guys. (insisting on students’ being more polite; see also
      Item 7.)
12. Hold it down, people! (asking the students to talk more quietly, when talking (i.e. group
     discussions) is allowed)
13. (Let’s) Keep it down to a dull roar, shall we? (a humorous way to ask the class to be
     quieter, when talking is allowed)
1.1.12 Asking a student to stop some behaviour
1.   Stop it. / Stop that.
2.   Settle down. / Relax. (be less active or be calm)
3.   Stop talking (and listen).
4.   Stop moving around (and listen).
5.   Stop talking / moving around.
6.   Sit still. / Turn around. / Face the front.
7.   That’s enough of that!
8.   Calm down. / Simmer down. (= to become calm, physically or emotionally)
9.   Mind your manners. (= be polite)
10. Make room for … (room = usable space)
11. Mind your Ps and Qs. (idiomatic) = Mind your own business!
12. Behave. / Behave yourself / yourselves.
13. I expect you to be on your best behaviour. (The teacher is telling the students that
     they must demonstrate good behaviour; used for special occasions such as excursions
     or having a substitute teacher or a guest in the class.)
14. Act like a lady / a gentleman.
15. What’s the magic word? (the magic word = the word “please”; the teacher is reminding
     the student to use the word “please” in his request; that is, the teacher is trying to get
     the students to be polite.)
16. Don’t make fun of me / him. (to make fun of sb = to portray sb as ridiculous to make
     others laugh at him / her)
17. Are you asking for trouble? (doing sth, especially irritating someone, which will result in
     problems if you continue)
18. She may be asking for trouble. (= doing sth which may result in punishment or harm to
     oneself)
19. Control yourself! / Get a hold of yourself.
20. Don’t be quick to take offence. (i.e. Don’t be offended by small things.)
21. Follow the rules. / Observe the rules. (i.e. Don’t break the rules.)
22. Chill out. (informal for becoming still / less excited)
23. Watch your language / vocabulary. (The teacher is asking a student to speak less harshly
     or to stop using profanity.)
22

Formal letters
Dear Sir or Madam or Dear Sir / Madam
Dear Sir
or Dear Sirs
(use this when you do not know the man’s
(use this when you do not know whether
name)
you are writing to a man or a woman)
To whom it may concern
Dear Madam (use this when you do not
(use this when you do not know the person’s
know the woman’s name)
name and the letter is very formal)
Informal letters
Dear + first name
Hi / Hello (+ first name)
(use this when you know the person well
(use this in letters to friends and people that
enough to use their first name only).
you know well)
Ways of ending a letter
Formal letters
Yours sincerely
(use this in British English when you have
(use this in British English when you have
NOT used the person’s family name at the
used the person’s family name at the start)
start)
Yours faithfully
Yours truly (use this in American English)
Informal letters
Lots of love / Love (from)
Take care
(use this in letters to your close friends and
Regards / Kind regards
family)
(use this in letters to people you work with
All the best / Best wishes
or do not know very well)
Useful phrases for structuring your message
Formal letters
Informal letters
Further to my letter of 20th July …
I was really pleased to get your letter.
I am writing to enquire about …
It was great to see you / hear from you.
I am writing to apply for the position of …
Sorry it’s been so long since I last wrote. /
advertised in …
Sorry I haven’t written for so long.
I am writing in response to your advertise-
Thanks for your letter.
ment in …
I hope you are well. / How are you? /
I am writing to inform you that …
How’s things?
I would be most grateful if you could …
Just a quick note to let you know ...
Please accept my apologies for …
Let me know when you are free so we
Please find enclosed …
can get together.
68

Five Paragraph Essay Sample
The Hazards of Moviegoing
By John Langan
From College Writing Skills with Readings
Introductory
I am a movie fanatic. When friends want to know what picture
 paragraph
won the Oscar in 1980 or who played the police chief in Jaws,
(Thesis)
they ask me. My friends, though, have stopped asking me if I
want to go out to the movies. The problems in getting to the
theater, the theater itself, and the behavior of some patrons are
all reasons why I often wait for a movie to show up on TV.
First supporting
First of all, just getting to the theater presents difficulties. Leav-
paragraph
ing a home equipped with a TV and a video recorder isn’t an
attractive idea on a humid, cold, or rainy night. Even if the weather
cooperates, there is still a thirty-minute drive to the theater down
a congested highway, followed by the hassle of looking for a park-
ing space. And then there are the lines. After hooking yourself to
the end of a human chain, you worry about whether there will be
enough tickets, whether you will get seats together, and whether
many people will sneak into the line ahead of you.
Second supporting
Once you have made it to the box office and gotten your tickets,
paragraph
you are confronted with the problems of the theater itself. If you
are in one of the run-down older theaters, you must adjust to the
musty smell of seldom-cleaned carpets. Escaped springs lurk in
the faded plush or cracked leather seats, and half the seats you
sit in seem loose or tilted so that you sit at a strange angle. The
newer twin and quad theaters offer their own problems. Sitting in
an area only one-quarter the size of a regular theater, moviegoers
often have to put up with the sound of the movie next door. This
is especially jarring when the other movie involves racing cars or
a karate war and you are trying to enjoy a quiet love story. And
whether the theater is old or new, it will have floors that seem to
be coated with rubber cement. By the end of a movie, shoes
almost have to be pried off the floor because they have become
sealed to a deadly compound of spilled soda, hardening bubble
gum, and crushed Ju-Jubes.
Third supporting
Some of the patrons are even more of a problem than the theater
paragraph
itself. Little kids race up and down the aisles, usually in giggling
packs. Teenagers try to impress their friends by talking back to
the screen, whistling, and making what they consider to be hilari-
ous noises. Adults act as if they were at home in their own living
rooms and comment loudly on the ages of the stars or why mov-
ies aren’t as good anymore. And people of all ages crinkle candy
wrappers, stick gum on their seats, and drop popcorn tubs or
85


Office (continued)
38 spine label (spine tag)
42 release lever (locking lever, release/
39 finger hole
     lock lever)
40 arch board file
43 compressor
41 arch unit
44 bank statement (statement of account)
A Microscope
ocular (eyepiece) contains lenses
to increase magnification
body tube
nosepiece
coarse adjustment
moves tube up or
down
objectives contain
lenses of different
magnification
arm
stage
glass side
stage clips hold
slide in place
diagram regulates
light passing through
specimen
mirrow reflects
fine adjustment
light upwards
permits exact
through diagram
focusing
and hole in stage
base
249










Mathematics
 
 +  add 
  is identical or congruent to
is a subset of 
 -  subtract 
  is perpendicular to 
A  the complement of A; the  
 x  multiply 
 ll 
is parallel to 
 
set of all the elements of 
 
 divide 
 square root of x 
 
which are not elements of A 
 =  equal to 
%  per cent 
therefore 
not equal to 
xx
f(x)
 
 
function of x: if f(x) 
x2  
100  
 approximately equal to 
AB vector AB 
 
then f(2)=4, f(-1)=1 
 
> greater than 
  union of 2 sets 
  the ratio of the length of the 
 greater than or equal to 
  intersection of 2 sets 
pi  circumference of a circle to  
< less than 
  the entity or universal set 
  the diameter of the circle: 
 less than or equal to 
  the empty set 
 
22
approximately 3.1416 or 7  
Areas of geometrical figures
Volumes and surface areas
of geometrical solids
Triangle area =  12 a h  or
Cuboid volume = x b x h
s(s a)(s b)(s c) ,
surface area = (a b+a h+b h)
          where s =  1
(a b c)
2
Rectangle
Parallelogram
Pyramid
area = a x b
area = h
volume = 13  x base area x
perpendicular height (h)
Cone
1
Trapezium
Circle
volume = 
h
3
area = 1 (a bh
area=
r2
curved surface
2
length of
area = 
r l
circumference
= 2
r
Cylinder
volume = 
h
curved surface area = 
Sphere
2
r h
total surface area = 2
(h r)
volume =  4
3
 
3
surface area = 
2
4
r
250


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