английский язык для аспирантов И  соискателей 




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To discuss one's idea; How very interesting; Let us see what we can do about it; 
there are gaps in (пробелы) your knowledge; I'll fill up my gap of  knowledge in the 
library; I want to know everything possible in the field of my research; it is necessary 
to consider the facts. 
 
1.3.4 Use the following situations to start a short talk: 
 
1 Your scientific adviser has looked through your paper meant for the 
conference. He is making some critical remarks now. 
1  You are upset about your research findings. You can't get any positive result. 
Your friend tries to cheer you up. 
 
1.3.5 Think of situations where the following proverbs can be used: 
 
1)  Well begun is half done - Лиха беда - начало; 
2)  A big ship sales in deep waters - Большому  кораблю - большое 
плавание. 
 
1.4 Additional material for reading 
 
1.4.1 Some Aspects of Research Work Organization  
 
English - Speaking Countries 
Science is not licensed profession, and to be counted as a scientist one need not be a 
Doctor of Philosophy… But a scientist without a Ph.D. (or a medical degree) is like a 
lay brother in a Cistercian monastery. Generally he has to labor in the fields while 
others sing in the choir. If he goes into academic life, he can hope to become a 
professor only at the kind of college or university where faculty members are given 
neither time nor facilities for research… A young scientist with a bachelor's or a 
master's degree will probably have to spend his time working on problems, or pieces 
of problems, that are assigned to him by other people and that are of more practical 
than scientific interest. Wherever he works, the prospects are slight that he will be 
given much autonomy and freedom. Having a Ph. D. or its equivalent - a medical 
degree plus post-graduate training in research - has become in fact, if not in law, a 
requirement for full citizen ship in the American scientific community. 
 
1.4.2 Leading Research Centres 
 
To be successful as a scientist, it is important not only to have a Ph. D., but to 
have earned it at the right place. From the standpoint of rightness, American 
universities may be divided into three groups. The first is made up of those 
institutions to which the term "leading" may appropriately be applied. They include 
Chicago, Cal Tech, the University of California at Berkeley, Columbia, Harvard, 
Illinois, M.I.T. (=Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Michigan, Princeton, 
Stanford, Wisconsin, Yale, and perhaps two or three others. These are the universities 
 
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whose professors get the biggest research grants, publish most scientific papers, serve 
on the most important government committees, win most of the scientific prizes, and 
are most likely to be acknowledged as leaders in their fields … Ranking just below 
these twelve are universities like Minnesota and Indiana and U.C.L.A. (University of 
California at Los Angelos), where scientists and scholars of international renown are 
also to be found, but in such dense clusters as at Harvard or Berkeley … This is not to 
say that first-rate scientists are to be found only at first-rate universities - or that are 
no second-rate people at Berkeley and M.I.T. But the brightest students, like the 
brightest professors, tend to be found at the leading universities. 
 
1.4.3 Postdoctoral Study 
 
Although possession of a Ph. D. is supposed to signify that a scientist has 
learned his trade as a researcher, it is now very common for young scientists to 
continue in a quasi-student status for a year or two after they get their doctorates … 
Older scientists as a rule are very happy to take on postdoctoral students. The 
postdoc, as he is sometimes called, is like an advanced graduate student in that he 
does research under the general direction of an older man. But he usually needs much 
less direction of an older man and he can therefore be much more helpful to an 
experienced scientist who is eager to see his work pushed forward as rapidly as 
possible… Postdoctoral trainees can have the further advantage of serving a professor 
as a middleman in his dealing with his graduate students. 
For young scientists themselves, a year or two of postdoctoral study and 
research has many attractions. For some it is a chance to make up for what they didn't 
learn in graduate school. For scientists whose graduate training has been good, the 
chief advantage of doing postdoctoral research is that it gives them a couple of years 
in which they can put all their effort into research. A postdoctoral fellowship can also 
be a relatively tranquil interlude between the pressures and intellectual restrictions of 
life as a graduate student, and the competition and distractions of life as an assistant 
professor. Many scientists go abroad, not because the training they get will 
necessarily be better than they would get in the United States, but because a 
postdoctoral fellowship gives them a chance to travel – often for the first time in their 
lives. 
 
1.4.4 Read the following dialogue in parts 
 
Q: What do you do after you receive your bachelor’s degree? 
A: With a bachelor’s degree you can apply to a graduate school and start 
working towards a master’s degree. If you have a bachelor’s degree you can also go 
to a professional school.  
Q: What is professional school? 
A: Law and medical schools are considered professional schools. If you go to a 
medical school it’s a four years program, basic program, and then you usually have 
internship. You usually have to be on intern for a year. But it depends on your 
speciality. If you’re going into surgery you may have another year. Well, anyway it 
 
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