Пособие по общественно-политической и официально-деловой лексике Москва




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2, Read from left to right. Indicate which word or word group is nearest in meaning to those italicized. Translate the italicized lexical units,

1. Landowner – landlord – land proprietor – land user

2. Gains fruits – appropriation – achievements

3. To repulse – to repel – to reject – to beat off

4. transformationsrestructuring – changes – transfigurations

5. Antagonisms – hostilities – animosity – controversies

6. Genuine – real – native – true

7. Mankind – humanity – human race – human environment [114]

8. International standing – world situation – international posture – international position

9. All-round – all-embracing – multilateral – comprehen­sive

10. Intelligentsia – white collars – blue collars – intellectuals


3. Translate the following text into Russian paragraph by paragraph paying special attention to the italicized lexical units.

1. The jurisdiction of the Union of Soviet Socialist Repub­lics, as represented by its highest bodies of state authority and administration, shall cover:

the admission of new republics to the USSR; endorse­ment of the formation of new autonomous republics and autonomous regions within Union Republics;

2. Determination of the state boundaries of the USSR and approval of changes in the boundaries between Union Repub­lics;

3. Establishment of the general principles for the organi­zation and functioning of republican and local bodies of state authority and administration;

4. The insurance of uniformity of legislative norms through­out the USSR and establishment of the fundamentals of the legislation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Union Republics;

5. Pursuance of a uniform social and economic policy; direction of the country's economy; determination of the main lines of scientific and technological progress and the general measures for rational exploitation and conservation of natural resources; the drafting and approval of state plans for the economic and social development of the USSR, and endorse­ment of reports on their fulfillment;

6. The drafting and approval of the consolidated Budget of the USSR, and endorsement of the report on its execution; management of a single monetary and credit system; determi­nation of the taxes and revenues forming the Budget of the ^SSR; and the formulation of prices and wages policy;

7. Direction of the sectors of the economy, and of enterprises and amalgamations under Union jurisdiction, and general direction of industries under Union-Republican jurisdiction;

8. Issues of war and peace, defence of the sovereignty of the USSR and safeguarding of its frontiers and territory, [115] and organization of defence; direction of the Armed Forces of the USSR;

9. State security;

10. representation of the USSR in international relations; the USSR's relations with other states and with international organizations; establishment of the general procedure for, and co-ordination of, the relations of Union Republics with other states and with international organizations; foreign trade and other forms of external economic activity on the basis of state monopoly;

11. control over observance of the Constitution of the; USSR, and ensurance of conformity of the Constitutions of Union Republics to the Constitution of the USSR;

12. and settlement of other matters of АН-Union importance.

13. A Union Republic is a sovereign Soviet socialist staid

that has united with other Soviet Republics in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

14. A Union Republic shall have its own Constitutions conforming to the Constitution of the USSR with the specific features of the Republic being taken into account.

15. Union Republics take part in decision-making in the. Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Presidium of the Supreme; Soviet of the USSR, the Government of the USSR, and other

bodies of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in matters, that come within the jurisdiction of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

16. A Union Republic shall ensure comprehensive economia, and social development on its territory, facilitate exercise оn the powers of the USSR on its territory, and implement the j decisions of the highest bodies of state authority and admini­stration of the USSR.

17. In matters that come within its jurisdiction, a Union Republic shall co-ordinate and control the activity of enterprises, institutions, and organizations subordinate to the Union.

18. The Constitution of the Russian Soviet Federative! Socialist Republic of 1918 was the first constitution in the world which differed substantially from bourgeois constitu­tions. It was a creation of the revolutionary proletariat and peasantry under the leadership of the Party of Bolsheviks headed by V. I. Lenin. Thus, through the operation of the law, the Constitution of 1918 reinforced the gains of the Great October Socialist Revolution and the major transformations carried out by the Soviet power, [116]


4. Translate into English paying special attention to the italicized le­xical units.

1. Высшим органом государственной власти СССР явля­ется Верховный Совет СССР. Верховный Совет СССР право­мочен (is powered) решать все вопросы, отнесенные Консти­туцией СССР к ведению Союза ССР. 2. Верховный Совет СССР состоит из двух палат: Совета Союза и Совета Нацио­нальностей. 3. Совет Национальностей избирается но норме (on the basis of the following representation): 32 де­путата от каждой союзной республики, 11 депутатов от каждой автономной-республики, пять депутатов от каждой автономной области (Autonomous Region) и один депу­тат от каждого автономного округа (Autonomous Area).

4. Совет Союза и Совет Национальностей по представлению (upon submission by) избираемых ими Мандатных комиссий (Credentials commissions) принимают решение о призна­нии полномочий депутатов (validity of Deputies' credentials), а в случае нарушения законодательствам выборах — о при­знании выборов отдельных депутатов недействительными.

5. Сессии Верховного Совета СССР созываются два раза в год. Внеочередные сессии (special sessions) созываются Президиумом Верховного Совета СССР по его инициативе, а также по предложению союзной республики или не ме­нее трети депутатов (not less than one-third of) одной из па­лат. 6. Сессия Верховного Совета СССР состоит из раздель­ных и совместных заседаний палат, а также проводимых в период между ними заседаний постоянных комиссий па­лат или комиссий Верховного Совета СССР. Сессия откры­вается и закрывается на раздельных или совместных за­седаниях палат.


5. Give Russian equivalents for:

to bring out in the open; to come off scot-free; when in Rome do as Romans do; to hang by a thread; to touch upon a question in passing; to side-step an issue; burning prob­lem; to rise to the occasion; to break a deadlock; with an unaided eye; for a rainy day; cash down; where there's smoke, 'here's fire

6. Supply the correct preposition.

1. Citizens of the USSR are equal ... the law, without distinction ... origin, social or property status, race or nationality, sex, education, language, attitude to religion, type [117] and nature of occupation, domicile, or other status. 2. The. equal rights are guaranteed ... all fields of economic, political, social and cultural life. 3. Any direct or indirect limitation ... the rights ... citizens or establishment ... direct or indi­rect privileges ... grounds of race or nationality, and any advocacy ... racial or national exclusiveness, hostility or contempt, are punishable ... law. 4. Citizens of other countries and stateless persons in the USSR are guaranteed the rights and freedoms provided ... law, including the right to apply ... a court and other state bodies... the protection of their person­al property, family, and other rights. 5. Citizens of the USSR have the right ... work (that is, to guaranteed employ­ment and pay ... accordance ... the quantity and quality of their work, and not below the state-established minimum), including the right to choose their trade or profession, type of job and work ... accordance ... their inclinations, abili­ties, training and education, ... due account ... the needs of society. 6. The right ... rest and leisure is ensured by the establishment of a working week not exceeding 41 hours, for workers and other employees, a shorter working day ... a number of trades and industries, and shorter hours ... night work; ... the provision ... paid annual holidays, weekly days of rest, extension ... the network of cultural, educational and health-building institutions, and the development on a mass scale of sport, physical culture, and camping and tourism; ... the provision ... neighbourhood recreational faci­lities, and ... other opportunities ... rational use ... free time. 7. The right ... education is ensured ... free provision ... all forms of education, ... the institution of universal, compulsory secondary education, and broad development of vocational, specialized secondary, and higher education, in which instruction is oriented..... practical activity and production; ... the development of extramural, correspon­dence and evening courses; ... the provision ... state scho­larships and grants and privileges ... students; ... the free issue ... school textbooks; ... the opportunity to attend a school where teaching is ...tthe native language; and ... the provision ... facilities ... self-education. 8. Citizens ... the USSR have the right to take part ... the management and] administration ... state and public affairs and ... the discus­sion and adoption ... laws and measures of All-Union andj local significance. This right is ensured ... the opportunity to vote and to be elected ... Soviets of People's Deputies and other elective state bodies, to take part ... nationwide discussions and referendums, ... people's control, ... the [118] work ... state bodies, public organizations, and local community groups, and ... meetings ... places ... work 0r residence.


7. Translate into Russian paying special attention to the italicized terms (sovietisms).

1. This month our communist work team has overfulfilled its plan. 2. The community services in our area leave some room for improvement. 3. The director of our plant pays a lot of attention to the broad educational activities. 4. The coun-terplan proposed by the workers was much more ambitious. 5. Our book exhibition and review proved to be unusually popular. 6. The highest national award was conferred on him. 7. Moscow is a hero-city. 8. Recently the city public educa­tion board issued a new information booklet. 9. After classes my son joins his extended day group. 10. I am a member of the local nature conservation society. 11. His candidate-of-science thesis is a serious research into the problem of educa­tion. 12. As an initiator of new forms and methods of work he won a prize. 13. Did you listen to the speech of the elec­tion candidate? It was very interesting. 14. I rarely resort to the help of the voluntary mutual aid fund. 15. Our Komsomol spotlight is a very popular paper. 16. I am a member of the board of the house-building co-operative. 17. Citizens of the USSR enjoy free skilled medical aid. 18. In this case you should address your Trade Union Local Committee.


8. Translate the following text into English.

«Теперь о задачах, которые вытекают для нас из совре­менной международной обстановки. Как вы знаете, глав­ную ставку США и страны НАТО делают сегодня на дости­жение военного превосходства над СССР и Организацией Варшавского Договора, на безудержную гонку вооруже­ний, прикрываемую вымыслами о «советской военной уг­розе». Авантюристическая политика Вашингтона, нагнетая До предела международную напряженность, толкает чело­вечество к ядерной катастрофе.

При всей остроте международных отношений КПСС по-прежнему твердо убеждена, что ядерное безумие можно остановить. И нет для нашей партии задачи более важной, чем сохранение и упрочение мира. Мы последовательно отстаиваем принципы мирного сосуществования и раз- [119] рядки. Широкий комплекс инициатив, выдвинутых за последнее время Советским Союзом, другими странами социалистического содружества, свидетельствует, что социализм продолжает мирное наступление».

(«Материалы Пленума Центрального Комитета КПСС. 14—15 июня 1983 го­да». М., 1983, с. 50)


UNIT 10

GREAT BRITAIN

Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. It does not have a single constitutional document. Instead, the unwritten constitution of Britain has evolved over several centuries, and it consists of parliamentary laws (the so-called statute law);1 judicial precedents, and constitutional agreements or customs. The statutory foundation of the British constitu­tion is composed of several important documents such as the Magna Carta (1215), the Petition of Right (1628), the Habeas; Corpus Act (1679), the Bill of Rights (1689), the Statute of Westminster (1931), the Representation of the People Act (1948), the Reform of the House of Lords Act (1968), and the Representation of the People Act (1969).2

The chief of state is the king (or queen). Royal power is for life and is inherited by the monarch's direct descendants in the male line, and in case there are none, in the female line, according to seniority. The monarch is considered to be the supreme bearer of executive power, the head of the judicial! system, the supreme commander-in-chief of the armed forces, the temporal head of the Anglican Church, and the head on the Commonwealth3. Juridically the monarch has the right! to appoint the prime minister, the other ministers4, judges, diplomats, officers of the army, navy, and air force, bishops, and archbishops, and governors, as well as concluding international treaties, declaring war, and concluding peace. The monarch is considered to be an integral part of Parliament' the so-called Crown-in-Parliament5, and in this capacity summons Parliament into session, which is opened by ha speech from the throne6. The monarch also has the power to dissolve the House of Commons and to sanction bills that have been adopted by Parliament and possesses the right to confer the titles of peer, baron, knight, and [120] honorific titles. The monarch publishes so-called edict acts in council, bestows charters, and so on. But in fact the mo­narch of England is only the nominal chief of state (who reigns but does not rule); the royal powers and prerogatives are almost entirely in the hands of the executive authority — the cabinet of ministers.

In a formal sense the supreme organ of royal rule is the Privy Council7, which includes especially honoured people. But in practice this body has not functioned for 150 years. The highest organ of legislative power is Parliament, which consists of the king (or queen), the House of Lords, and the House of Commons. These component parts of Par­liament are considered independent of each other, since they are constructed on different principles, have separate residences, and different powers; however, in order that laws may be adopted, it is usually necessary that they come to an agreement.

The general national representative institution of Britain is the lower house — the House of Commons.

The upper house of the British Parliament, the House of Lords, is an archaic institution that consists of peers.

The procedure for passing bills in both houses is approxi­mately the same; however, the chairman of the House of Com­mons, the Speaker, has broad powers and can decisively affect the entire course of its work, whereas the Lord Chancellor,8 who presides in the House of Lords, is deprived of these powers. The monarch has the right to finally reject a law (the so-called absolute veto), hut this right has not been used since the beginning of the 18th century. The legislative initiative lies almost completely with the government.

The government of Britain comprises 80 to 100 persons. It includes departmental ministers (some of these are called state secretaries), who head certain departments; non-de­partmental ministers, who are engaged in so-called tradi­tional duties (the Lord Chairman of the Council, the Chan­cellor of the Duchy of Lancaster9, the Lord Chancellor) and ministers without portfolio; the chiefs of the juridical departments; ministers of state appointed to assist the de­partmental ministers; and so-called junior ministers (deputy state secretaries and parliamentary secretaries, who act as substitutes for the senior ministers in Parliament). The overwhelming majority of ministers are members of the House of Commons, while a small part of them represent the government in the House of Lords. The government is headed by a prime minister. As a rule, this post is attained [121] by the leader of the party that has a majority in the House of Commons. In fact, since the beginning of the 18th century the highest organ of executive power in Britain has been the cabinet of ministers, which concentrates in its hands all the important powers for carrying out domestic and foreign po-Hey. Although the cabinet cannot issue normative acts, щ fact it does carry out all norm-creating activity. The members of the cabinet are selected personally by tire prime mini­ster, and it is composed only of those ministers who occupy the most important posts in the government.

The formation of the cabinet of ministers is not provided for by the legislature of Britain.

In a juridical sense the government bears a collective responsibility for its political activity to the House of Com­mons, and in case of a loss of confidence it is obliged to re­sign.

Local government. Britain is a unitary state composed of four historically formed regions: England, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. England, Wales, and Scotland have their own legal and court systems, national churches, and) organic systems of local government. The British cabinet of ministers includes state secretaries for Welsh and Scottish affairs. Based on the Government of Ireland Act (1920), Northern Ireland enjoys limited rights of autonomous admi­nistrative authority. Executive powers in Nothern Ireland are exercised by a governor who is appointed by the king (or queen); the legislative organ is a bicameral parliament, consisting of a House of Commons (52 members, elected by the population of Northern Ireland) and a Senate (26 senators, elected by the House of Commons). There is a cabinet headed by a prime minister. The powers of all these organs are li­mited to purely local problems.

The elective organ of self-government in all administra­tive territorial units (with the exception of sparsely popula­ted parishes, which are governed by public assemblies of] inhabitants) is a council, either elected for three years or one-third of which is newly elected each year. Included in the councils of counties, county towns, and municipal cities are elders, the so-called aldermen, who are elected by the! respective councils for a term of six years in an amount equal to one-third of the number on the council, from people who are not members of the council. The chairman of the council is the mayor (in certain large cities the lord mayor), who is elected by the members of the council from among its own members for a term of one year. The competence of [122] the organs of local self-government of all units is deter­mined by parliamentary and other acts. They administer prob­lems of local public welfare, transport, water-supply, dome­stic service, public health, education, support of public or­der, civil defence, fire safety, and so on. Municipalities are in strict financial dependence upon the central government. Approximately half of the financial needs of the municipali­ties are covered at the expense of governmental subsidies, and the remaining half by local taxes.

(From encyclopedias)

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