Пособие по общественно-политической и официально-деловой лексике Москва




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10. Translate into Russian paying special attention to attributive groups.

Model: The Chief delegate requested to see a background paper. Глава делегации попросил, чтобы ему дали доклад с кратким изложением истории вопроса.

1. I really enjoy our community centre programmes. 2. For over two years the countries were engaged in talking about details of their disarmament package deal. 3. Today many newspapers carry articles on birth control problems. 4. The President was at a loss as to how to stop the growth of welfare expenditures. 5. The ratification instrument was deposited with the Secretary General. 6. The election campaign strategy [48] chief delivered an interesting lecture at the Columbia Uni­versity. 7. Town meetings display the senator at his best, they give him chance to sound his populist themes. 8. The senator tried to talk tough on the SALT treaty but the public did not share his line of thinking. 9. To strengthen confidence among States it is important to provide for confidence-build­ing measures agreements.


UNIT 2

DISARMAMENT: AN IMPERATIVE OF OUR TIME

In modern era it is difficult to find an issue that would be more vital and more urgent for the nations of the world than disarmament. Since the very foundation of the young Soviet Republic the Soviet Government has been seeking to halt the arms race and to reduce and eventually eliminate arma­ments.

The various and numerous constructive proposals put forward by the USSR at many international and diplomatic forums represent a focal point for efforts to achieve disarma­ment.

In many, many cases the Soviet Government has acted and is acting as an initiator of constructive plans and ideas aimed at ending the arms race and promoting genuine disar­mament. The Soviet Government is aware of the ruinous effect the arms race has on the economy and welfare of the nations of the world and especially on the economy of the developing countries.

That is why it is so important now to conclude treaties for the regulation, limitation and balanced reduction of all armed forces and all armaments; for the elimination of all major weapons adaptable to mass destruction; and for the effective international control of atomic energy to ensure the prohibition of atomic weapons and to ensure that the atomic energy is used only for peaceful purposes.

Disarmament is also a major item which is on the agenda of the United Nations.

Mankind today is confronted with1 an unprecedented threat of self-extinction arising from the massive and compe­titive accumulation of the most destructive weapons ever produced. Existing arsenals of nuclear weapons2 alone are more than sufficient to destroy all life on earth. Failure of efforts to halt and reverse the arms race3, in particular the nuclear arms race, increases the danger of the proliferation [49] of nuclear weapons4. Yet the arms race continues. Military budgets are constantly growing, with enormous consumption of human and material resources. The increase in weapons, especially nuclear weapons, far from helping to strengthen international security, on the contrary weakens it. The vast stockpiles and tremendous build up of arms and armed forces and the competition for qualitative refinement of weapons of all kinds, to which scientific resources and technological advances are diverted, pose incalculable threats to peace. All progressive-minded people of the world are aware of this difficult situation which aggravates world tensionss, sharpens conflicts in various regions of the world, hinders the process of detente, exacerbates the differences between opposing military alliances, jeopardizes the security of all States, and increases the threat of nuclear war.

The arms race, particularly in its nuclear aspect, runs counter to the efforts to achieve further relaxation of inter­national tension, to establish international relations based on peaceful coexistence and trust between all States, and to develop broad international co-operation and understanding. The arms race impedes the realization of these purposes, and is incompatible with the principles of the Charter of the United Nations, especially respect for sovereignty, refraining from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, the peaceful settlement of disputes and non-intervention and non-interference in the internal affairs of States. It also adversely affects the right of peoples freely to determine their systems of social and economic development, and hinders the struggle for self-determination and the elimination of colonial rule, racial or foreign domination or occupation. Indeed, the massive accumulation of armaments and the acquisition of armaments technology by racist regimes, as well as their possible acquisi­tion of nuclear weapons, present a challenging and increasingly dangerous obstacle to a world community faced with the urgent need to disarm. It is, therefore, essential for purposes of disarmament to prevent any further acquisition of arms or arms technology by such regimes, especially through strict adherence by all States to relevant decisions of the Security Council.

Enduring international peace and security cannot be built on the accumulation of weaponry by military alliances nor be sustained by a precarious balance of deterrence or doctrines of strategic superiority. Genuine and lasting peace can only be created through the effective implementation of the secu- [50] rity system provided for in the Charter of the United Nations and the speedy and substantial reduction of arms and armed forces, by international agreement and mutual example, leading ultimately to general and complete disarmament under effective international control. At the same time, the causes of the arms race and threats to peace must be reduced and to this end effective action should be taken to eliminate tensions and settle disputes by peaceful means.

(From newspapers)


COMMENTARY

1. mankind today is confronted with... человечество стоит перед лицом... . Выражение to be confronted with имеет синоним to face smth.: Mankind today is confronted with... = Mankind today faces...

2. arsenals of nuclear weapons имеющееся ядерное оружие; запасы ядерного оружия; арсеналы ядерного оружия. Когда речь идет о накоплении оружия, то по-английски эту мысль можно выразить следующим образом: to create (new) arsenals of weapons; to step up weapons manufac­ture (production); to accumulate weapons; to stockpile weapons; to escalate arms production; to build-up arms.

3. to halt or reverse the arms race приостановить и повер­нуть вспять гонку вооружений. Идея приостановления гонки вооружений может быть выражена по-английски с помощью ряда словосочетаний: to halt the arms race; to stop the arms race; to freeze the arms race; to impose a moratorium on the arms race. Противоположная идея ликвидации отставания в области гонки вооружений обычно передается по-английски следующим образом: to bridge the gap in the arms race; to narrow the gap in the arms race (e. g. in missile race, etc.); to catch up with smb. in the arms race; to attain parity of arms (ср.: stra­tegic parity равенство в стратегических вооружениях).

4. proliferation of nuclear weapons распространение ядер­ного оружия. В качестве синонимического выражения можно отметить spread of nuclear weapons. Обратите внимание на характерную традиционную словосоче-таемость существительного proliferation: proliferation of international organizations увеличение числа международ­ных организаций; proliferation of small States рост числа малых стран; proliferation of parties рост числа партий; proliferation of sophisticated weapons появление новых [51] видов оружия; proliferation of radio frequencies усиление радиочастотности. 5. world tensions напряженность в мире. В политическом языке существует целый ряд словосочетаний со словом world в грамматическом значении прилагательного: World Congress of Peace Forces Всемирный конгресс миро­любивых сил; world developments события международной жизни; World Disarmament Conference Всемирная кон­ференция по разоружению; world disarmament measures мероприятия по разоружению во всем мире; world peace международный мир; всеобщий мир; мир во всем мире; world peace and security международный мир и безопас­ность; World Peace Council Всемирный Совет Мира и т. п.

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

To aggravate world tensions усили­вать напряженность в мире, обо­стрять международную обста­новку

Disarmament affairs вопросы ра­зоружения

Disarmament debate прения по во­просам разоружения

Disarmament measures меры по разоружению

Disarmament negotiations перего­воры по разоружению

Disarmament programme програм­ма разоружения

Disarmament under control кон­тролируемое разоружение; Syn. controlled disarmament

Comprehensive negotiating prog­ramme on disarmament всеобъ­емлющая программа перегово­ров по разоружению

focal point центр внимания; ос­новной момент

major weapons adaptable to mass destruction основные виды ору­жия, которые могут применять­ся для целей массового уничто­жения

precarious balance of deterrence шаткое равновесие сдержива­ния

to reverse the arms race повер­нуть вспять гонку вооруже­ний

to run counter to идти вразрез с, противоречить (чему-л.)

to strengthen international secu­rity укреплять международную безопасность

world community международное сообщество; Syn. international community


EXERCISES

1, Read the text and translate it sentence by sentence.

2. Read from left to right. Indicate which word or word group is nearest tn meaning to those italicized. Translate the italicized lexical units.

Destructive – injurious – deleterious – ruinous

Danger – thin ice – hazard – lack of security

Incalculable – infinite – limitless – untold [52]

Relaxation – easing of tension – ease – inactivity

Incompatible – antagonistic – disagreeing – discordant

Integrity – totality – wholeness – indivisibility

To hinder – to retard – to block – to hammer

Massive – mighty – gigantic – enormous

Relevant – relating – applicable – related

Enduring – lasting – dependable – unremitting

3. Find the paragraphs in the text which are the answers to the following questions.

1. What is the problem facing mankind today? 2. Is the proliferation of nuclear weapons dangerous? 3. What is meant by a qualitative refinement of weapons? 4. Why does the arms race undermine the efforts to achieve further relaxation of international tension? 5. What are the most effective ways to ensure a genuine and lasting peace? 6. How can threats to peace be reduced? 7. In what way do certain racist regimes try to acquire new armaments technology?

4. Translate into Russian paying special attention to the italicized le­xical units.

1. A comprehensive international treaty is such an agreement which would include a greater rather than a lesser degree of disarmament; thus we can speak about a comprehensive test-ban treaty. 2. By collateral measures the experts in disarmament usually mean a stage in the whole disarmament process, or a treaty which would lessen international tensions and facili­tate the goal of general and complete disarmament. 3. General and complete disarmament is a goal of reduced armed forces and armaments to insure that States will have at their disposal only small, non-nuclear armaments necessary to maintain internal order. 4. An international inspection is a widely known concept. It is usually carried out under the direction of mul­tilateral agencies and according to agreement. 5. An on-site inspection usually carried out by official experts and repre­sentatives implies an examination of an area by outside inspectors to determine whether a violation of a treaty has occurred or is occurring at the suspected area. 6. The term moratorium is a widely known political concept. It means an informal undertaking by a State to refrain from a military action, e. g. refraining from testing nuclear weapons during the treaty negotiations. 7. Nuclear-free zones (NFZ) are geog­raphical areas in which the production and deployment of [53] nuclear weapons are prohibited by agreement. 8. A nuclear umbrella is an unofficial newspaper term which implies limited nuclear forces. What is meant here are those nuclear weapons which would be retained by some countries, if so agreed. The term nuclear umbrella may also mean a minimum deterrent while general and complete disarmament is in pro­cess. 9. A partial tent-ban treaty implies prohibition of tests only in some mediums. 10. The term arms control is rather difficult to translate because it may have a number of mean­ings. 11. An arms race is a reciprocal build-up in the quality or quantity of the military power of States. 12. The so-called atomic club includes those States which possess nuclear wea­pons.

5. Select the right English word or word group from the list given below corresponding to the following definitions. Give their Russian equi­valents.

Model: military position taken on enemy side of a river — bridge-head плацдарм science on the fly of rockets; attack that is swift and sudden, usually in war; sudden success that removes an ob­stacle to progress; the course of pursuing a dangerous policy to the brink of war; gradual accumulation of weapons; king or queen who is the supreme ruler of a country brinkmanship; ballistics; breakthrough; sovereign; blitz­krieg; build-up

6. Translate into Russian paying special attention to the italicized le­xical units.

1. It is high time that the hypocritical efforts of the aggressor State were denounced and unmasked. 2. At the present stage African peoples are waging decisive battles which are the culmination of their century-old struggle against colonialism and racism. 3. The object of attacks was to face the world with a fait accompli. 4. The USSR constantly upholds the principles enshrined in the UN Charter and champions the cause of freedom and independence. 5. In conclusion, my delegation would like to voice its support for any mea­sure that may be taken by the Security Council la curb the excesses of this reactionary regime. 6. This policy takes the world back to the law of the jungle, in which might prevails over right. 7. While it is clear that this delegation regards terrorist activities as totally reprehensible, it is also clear that we have the same attitude towards acts of reprisal. 8. I think that the same pattern has been set in Sahara where the troops tried to police that part of Africa. [54]

7. Give Russian equivalents for:

peace-loving nations; to seek to halt the arms race; to reduce armaments; the UN as a permanent forum for a dis­armament debate; Soviet initiatives in the area of disarma­ment; questions of regulation, limitation and balanced reduc­tion of armed forces and armaments; effective international control of atomic energy; precarious balance of deterrence; a treaty banning nuclear weapon tests; exploration and use of outer space; sophisticated types of weapons; weapons of mass destruction; peace rally; protest march; struggle against the deployment of missiles in Europe; the armaments should be curtailed; pressing disarmament problems; further arms drive must be halted; to elaborate a convention; the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; behind the scenes; to be in the same boat with; beyond a shadow of doubt; to bless one's lucky star; to explore every avenue; far-reaching effects; to encourage disarmament efforts; package on disar-ma ment

8. Select the right words from the brackets. Translate the sentences

1. How you cracked that matter (astonishes, confuses, beats) me. 2. Some students, longhairs and hippie types frequented that bar for a (convention, assembly, be-in). 3. Pirating the book (infringed, violated, interfered with) the author's copyright. 4. A legal secretary must (understand, grasp, master) the (jargon, parlance, argot) of law. 5. I want my children to be brought up in a (pacifistic, non-belligerent, peaceful) world. 6. Minutes of (transactions, proceedings, proceeds) were written down by the club secretary. 7. It is easy to work in this field for a man who (knows the ropes, is unfamiliar with the business, is a poor judge of the busi­ness). 8. The two nations are now (bargaining, worrying, haggling) about a handful of largely symbolic issues after agreeing on basic matters such as troop withdrawal schedules and boundary lines. 9. But neither of them believes that he can yield on subjects that could be seized upon by political opponents as evidence of a (treason, sellout, betrayal of the cause). 10. The head of the delegation likes to describe his style of diplomacy as a (step-by-step, one-stage-at-a-time, brick-by-brick, slog-it-out) method in which progress is made almost imperceptibly. 11. The new Prime Minister means that he intends to make sure the press does not again engage in such (gossip-mongering, idle talking, chattering). 12. His Congressional supporters call the Governor a ("bully", hired ruffian, sweetheart) who wants Federal officials to (infringe, [55] transgress, break) the law so that a dubious project can proceed.

9. Translate the terms with the aid of the following definitions.

Model: lie-down lie-in; lying down in a public place in order to disrupt traffic, etc. – блокирование подхода (к правительственным зданиям) (путем лежания на зем­ле перед выхо­дом и т. д.)

1. Teach-in: critical discussion of a public issue (e. g. by students and guests). 2. Limousine liberal: a wealthy libe­ral; liberal-minded politician basing his political power on wealth; a representative of the influential rich (e. g. in con­gress, etc.). 3. Lock-in: locking oneself inside; staying within a building as asign of protest (against something). 4. Mer­chants of death: speculators in cannon fodder; manufacturers making arms for private profits; war-mongering industrial­ists trying to profit by arms sales; arms sales profiteers. 5. Minicrisis: a minor crisis; crisis of small importance; small crisis. 6. Be-in: gathering of people for spontaneous and hope­fully creative activities. 7. Crunch: a period of tension that becomes a political or economic moment of truth, when par­ticipants display courage or cowardice; the word "squeeze" may be regarded as a synonym. 8. Political dead end: a humor­ous saying about a supposedly thankless job that makes major enemies and aborts a political career, e. g. the mayor­alty of a large city.

10. With the aid of a dictionary translate the following sentences into Russian taking into account the polisemy of the italicized lexical units.

1. acknowledge: a) The experts reluctantly acknowledged that their estimate of food costs was inaccurate, b) At a recent reunion, a 1979 high school graduate acknowledged that she was kind of shocked during her first class at a leading uni­versity.

2. candid: a) What the reporter wanted was an old stuff, background material. And he got all this during a candid interview, b) Everybody reacted quite naturally since nobody knew anything about the candid camera, c) I am very impa­tient by nature, that's why I prefer candid pictures.

3. front: a) The front page story was quite gripping. b) There were so many interesting facts to report that the [56] editor tried to crash the front page, c) The story made front pages for months.

4. lead: a) All the students wanted to read first of all the feature lead, b) Did you read the lead headline in today's paper? c) The race was tight, nevertheless he managed to take the lead, d) Because he was an influential teacher the students tried to follow his lead.

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