Пособие по общественно-политической и официально-деловой лексике Москва




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3. Find out the meaning of the italicized lexical units with the aid of the following leading questions.

1. In our country people really enjoy their right to social security.

a) What kind of assistance is meant by social security in this sentence?

b) At what age is social security guaranteed?

c) Is it right to say that social security is usually provided to those who are aged, or ill, or disabled?

2. The Covenant deals with such matters as personal security.

a) What is meant by personal security in the framework of the Covenant?

b) How is personal security usually provided?

c) Does the term personal security mean a security of a person's life in society?

3. The law of almost any country contains a concept of the presumption of innocence.

a) Did you ever hear about this concept?

b) Do you think this concept is right or wrong?

c) Would it be right to think presumption of innocence is an inference as to the truth of some allegation or probable reasoning, in the absence of actual proof or disproof?

4. The Soviet law prohibits incitement to discrimination or violence. [69]

a) What kind of actions would you refer to the category of incitement to discrimination or violence?

b) Do yon see any difference between incitement and instigation?

c) Does incitement mean stirring a group of people to action of some sort or to supporting such action?


4. Translate the following sentences with absolute constructions.

Model: With the view-points being opposite, the nego­tiations broke down. Переговоры были прерваны, поскольку их участники разошлись во мнениях.

1. With the talks finished being successful, the signing of a treaty could lead to quick agreement on the details of the package. 2. With the airliner badly damaged, rescue workers could pull only 19 people out of the blazing wreck, some of them seriously injured. 3. With the impact of the concluded package being maximized, it is reasonable to hope that the situation would bounce him up a bit in the polls but that boost may last only a very short time. 4. The Ministry of Finance predicted a 3 % rise in prices, with unemployment increasing slightly in the next few months. 5. General strike spirit began to run like wildfire, one local union after another approving the proposal of a complete stoppage. 6. Now, with the opposition mounting and the Cabinet falling apart, the King turned in desperation to his Lord Chancellor.


5, Translate into English.

1. Учитывая пожелания трудящихся многих стран, в 1976 году были сформулированы и вступили в силу два международных пакта: Международный пакт об экономи­ческих, социальных и культурных правах и Междуна­родный пакт о гражданских и политических правах. 2. В буржуазных странах фактическое положение дел таково что, хотя экономические и социальные права и провозгла­шаются в конституциях этих стран, на деле они не гаран­тируются. 3. В странах социализма право на труд — это реально гарантируемое право. В странах «свободного пред­принимательства» право на труд — это право из области мечтаний и случайной возможности для миллионов граж­дан. 4. Ценность упомянутых Выше пактов состоит в том, что их можно рассматривать как документы, направляю­щие усилия правительств в этом вопросе. 5. Право народов на самоопределение — это, пожалуй, одно из самых'важ­ных прав, упомянутое в пактах. 6. Комиссия по правам [70] человека была учреждена в 1946 году в соответствии с ре­золюцией Экономического и Социального совета. 7. В состав Комиссии входят много государств, включая СССР. 8. Ко­миссия представляет доклады Экономическому и Социаль­ному совету о международных пактах о правах человека, о конвенциях о гражданских свободах, о защите нацио­нальных меньшинств и предупреждении дискриминации, о свободе информации и по другим вопросам.


6. Translate into Russian paying special attention to the italicized lexical units.

1. The international covenants are based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 2. The delegate said that he was in favour of the general welfare of the people. 3. The States Parties to the present document recognize the right to work which includes the right to gain one's living by work which a person freely chooses. The States Parties should take appro­priate steps to guarantee this right. 4. These steps include technical and vocational guidance and training programmes, policies and techniques to achieve economic, social and cul­tural development. 5. As far as I am concerned I am for fair pay and equal remuneration for work. This requirement is fully implemented in socialist countries. 6. It is important to broaden the exchange of samples and other scientific ma­terials used for fundamental research in the field of natural science and medicine. 7. Today comparative studies on social, socio-economic and cultural phenomena are popular in univer­sities. 8. The preamble recalls the obligation of countries to promote the right of peoples to self-determination. 9. I think that everyone should have equal opportunity to be promoted in his job to an appropriate higher level, subject to no consi­derations other than those of seniority and competence. 10. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to social security, including social insurance. 11. Mar­riage must be entered into with the free consent of the intending spouses. 12. Special protection should be accorded to mothers during a reasonable period before and after childbirth. During such period working mothers should be accorded paid leave or leave with adequate social security benefits. 13. There is a special provision in the Covenant for the reduction of the stillbirth rate and of infant mortality and for the healthy de­velopment of the child.


7. Given below are definitions and an illustration of the use of politi­cal terms. Translate the sentences and give Russian terminological equivalents [71]

1. Fair trial. Impartial judicial examination or enquiry in a court of law. The Covenant deals with such matters as person­al security, fair trial, etc.

2. To enter into. To become party to a contract. The Soviet Union entered into a treaty of allian­ce with this European nation.

3. The public good. Things that concern the interests of community of the people. I think this kind of behaviour is contrary to the public good.

4. Degrading treatment. Degrading treatment is that kind of treatment that casts down per­sons by reducing in dignity, re­spect, or rank; it usually incurs shame or corrup­tion. A human being is not to be sub­jected to any form of degrading treatment.

5. Racial barriers. Barriers on the basis of racial segregation. The existence of the racial barriers in South Africa should he denounced since it is an open discrimination and is repugnant to human ideals.

6. Right to housing. Right to have decent living quarters. In capitalist countries the right to using is usually only proclaim­ed but not guaranteed.

7. front-porch. Pompous personal campaign vote-gathering campaign of 1920's. What makes a front-porch campaign impossible today is that a candidate must never seem re­mote and inac­cessible. [72]

8. Front runner. A front runner is a leading contender for a nomination. He competed in the race so success­fully that he became a front runner.


8. Translate into Russian paying special attention to the italicized lexical units.

Model: The bosses gathered in the smoke-filled room to chart the next political deals. Боссы собрались за кулисами, чтобы наметить очередные полити­ческие сделки.

1. Не tried to avoid publicity and keep a low profile. 2. There are signs that jockeying has already started for a successor to the President. New leadership could mean a new ball game for the present policies. 3. The opposition insisted that other concessions should be made to wrap up the treaty. 4. It was felt that his failure to make headway would alienate the Congress and force him to junk his arms policy. 5. Federal wage and price watchdogs — active in Teamsters negotiations* that led to a strike and a fat settlement — are likely to take a back seat now in talks between auto makers and the United Auto Workers. 6. New offices with lawyers are being set up to combat white-collar crimes such as corporate embezzlement, fraud and theft of securities. 7. One has to expect painful cutbacks in benefits, with some groups lopped off the rolls. 8. Look for the President to sound a hard lineon inflation and energy. 9. Critics tried to paint him as too far out to trust.


9. Supply the correct prepositions. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. All peoples have the right ... self-determination. ... virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and pursue their economic, social and cultural develop­ment. 2. ... their own ends people can freely dispose ... their natural wealth and resources without prejudice ... any obliga­tions arising out of international economic co-operation, based ... the principles of mutual benefit, and international law. In no case may a people be deprived ... its own means of subsistence. 3. Remuneration should provide workers ... fair wages ... work of equal value without distinction of any kind, in particular women being guaranteed conditions of work not inferior ... those enjoyed ... men, with equal pay ... equal work. 4. The steps to be taken ... a State Party ... the present Covenant to achieve the full realization of this [73] right shall include technical and vocational guidance and training programmes, policies and techniques to achieve steady economic, social and cultural development. 5. The Covenant provides equal opportunity ... everyone to be pro­moted ... his employment ... an appropriate higher level, subject ... no considerations other than those of seniority and competence. 6. The States Parties ... the present Covenant, recognizing the fundamental right of everyone to be free ... hunger, shall take, individually and through international co-operation, the measures, including specific programmes. 7. The widest possible protection and assistance should be accorded ... the family, which is the natural and fundamental group unit of society, particularly for its establishment and while it is responsible ... the care and education of dependent children. Marriage must be entered ...... the free consent ... the intending spouses. 8. Special measures of protection should be taken ... behalf ... all children without any discri­mination ... reasons of parentage or other conditions. 9. Children should be protected ... economic and social ex­ploitation. 10. Their employment ... work harmful ... their morals or health or dangerous ... life or likely to hamper their normal development should be punishable ... law. States should also set age limits ... which the paid employment of child labour should be prohibited and punishable ... law. 11. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and shall strengthen the respect &,r human rights and fundamental freedoms. 12. The States Par­ties further agree that education shall enable all persons to participate effectively ... a free society, promote understand­ing, tolerance and friendship ... all nations and all racial, ethnic or religious groups, and further the activities ... the maintenance of peace.


10. Translate into English paying special attention to the italicized le­xical units.

1. Все народы имеют право на самоопределение. В силу этого права они свободно устанавливают свой политический статус и обеспечивают свое экономическое, социальное и культурное развитие. 2. Это государство несет ответствен­ность за управление подопечными территориями (trust terri­tories). 3. Участвующие в настоящем Пакте государства обязуются гарантировать, что права, провозглашенные в на­стоящем Пакте, будут осуществляться без какой бы то ни было дискриминации, как в отношении (as to) расы, цвета кожи, пола, языка, религии, политических или иных убеждений, национального или социального происхождения. [74] имущественного положения, рождения или иного обстоя­тельства (or other status). 4. Право на труд подразумевает право каждого человека на получение возможности зараба­тывать себе на жизнь трудом (to gain one's living by work), который выбирается свободно. 5. Меры, которые должны быть приняты участвующими в настоящем Пакте государ­ствами в целях полного осуществления права на труд, включают программы профессионально-технического обуче­ния и подготовки, пути и методы (policies and techniques) достижения неуклонного экономического, социального и культурного развития. 6. Каждый человек за свой труд должен получать соответствующее вознаграждение. 7. Граж­дане должны иметь одинаковую для всех возможность про­движения по службе на соответствующие более высокие ступени исключительно на основании трудового стажа и квалификации. 8. Участвующие в настоящем Пакте госу­дарства признают право каждого человека на социальное обеспечение, включая социальное страхование. 9. Семье, являющейся основной ячейкой общества, должны предо­ставляться по возможности самая широкая охрана и по­мощь, в особенности пока на ее ответственности лежит за­бота о несамостоятельных детях и их воспитании (care and education of dependent children). Брак должен заключаться по свободному согласию вступающих в брак. 10. Особая забота должна быть оказана матерям в течение определен­ного периода до и после родов. В течение этого периода работающим матерям должен предоставляться оплачивае­мый отпуск или отпуск с достаточными пособиями по со­циальному обеспечению.

11. Translate into Russian paying special attention to the italicized lexical units.

1. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and the sense of dignity, and shall strengthen the respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. 2. All people should enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications. 3. The Soviet people enjoy the freedom of scientific research and creative activity. 4. Our policy is that of encouragement of international contacts and co-ope­ration in the scientific and cultural fields. 5. War crimes and crimes against humanity, including genocide should be prevented and punished for. 6. The necessary legislation was effected in order to observe the provisions of this contract. 7. The Contracting Parties pledge themselves in such cases to grant extradition in accordance with their laws and treaties in force. 8. International disputes should be submitted to [75] the International Court of Justice. 9. The abrogation of the Convention is a serious matter. 10. The notification was re­ceived in due time.


UNIT 5

TENS OF THOUSANDS OF INDIGENTS JAM NEW YORK CRIMINAL COURTS

Alberto Garcia stares bleakly up at the judge. The judge stares back. Then the judge looks at the people who stand around Mr. Garcia: the policeman who arrested him a few hours earlier, the court-appointed defense lawyer1, the pro­secutor.

"How much does he have on him?"2 the judge asks.

"Eight dollars," the policeman replies.

"He needs money to get home," the defense lawyer inter­jects.

"How much do you need to get home?" the judge asks the defendant.

"A dollar," Mr. Garcia says.

There is a slight pause, barely noticeable to the 50 or so men and women slumped or dozing in the spectators' section of courtroom AR-1 of Criminal Court in Manhattan, waiting for other cases to be called.

Then the judge pronounces sentence:

"Seven dollars."

Mr. Garcia hands the money to a court official and walks out of court, the case closed.

Alberto Garcia is one of the tens of thousands of indigent men and women who stream through New York City's Crimi­nal Courts. They make up the bulk of the caseload a; only one out of every four or five defendants can afford his own lawyer.

Their cases reflect their poverty.

Mr. Garcia was arrested some months earlier for allegedly jumping a subway turnstile without paying his fare. A plea bargain had been arranged4 under which he would plead guilty 5 to a minor charge of trespassing and, a few days later, would pay a $15 fine.

But on payment day, Mr. Garcia did not show up. A war­rant was issued for his arrest; he was brought into court the day he was found. What the judge did, technically, was to resentence Mr. Garcia to a lesser penalty6. [76]

There are hundreds of cases in the Criminal Courts in which defendants are supposed to pay fines but do not. Typically they don't have the money; many are afraid to come to court empty-handed, lest they be jailed 7.

Thousands of brutal crimes come through the city's courts: assaults, stabbings, arson. In many, perhaps most, money was the object.

Many thousands of other cases that come through are relatively minor: food taken from supermarkets, clothes stolen from department stores, subway fares unpaid by youths who leap turnstiles.

Somewhere around 200,000 defendants have cases in the city's Criminal Courts each year. The court-system officials don't know the exact number because they keep track of "docket numbers" 8, meaning cases, rather than defendants, who may face more than one docket number each.

In Federal Court, the defendants are frequently middle class or even, as in cases of tax evasion and white-collar crimes 9,the prosperous. But in the local courts — the New York City Criminal Court, which is the lower-level tribunal, and the Criminal Division of State Supreme Court, the upper level — the rich are rarely seen.

The typical defendant is male, young, single, poor and, more often than not, unemployed.

"It's certainly not the legal system people think of, it's not Perry Mason" 10, said the executive director of the New York City Criminal Justice Agency, which conducted the study. "It's a net that catches people with problems."

The poverty is palpable in the court-rooms and hallways of the city's court-houses. It shows in the buses that take inmates back and forth between court and jail — the inmates who are in jail pending trial because they cannot afford bail, it shows in the shabby clothes of most of the people; it shows in the health problems of many of them.

About 40 people sit in the spectators' section of Night Court in Manhattan one weekday evening. One is a young woman with bruises on her face and a large, soiled bandage over her right eye. In the row behind her is an enormously overweight woman whose age is hard to guess. Nearby are several others with obvious weight problems, including a boy of about 10. Skin problems — rashes, acne, boils — disfigure the faces and hands of still others.

In the jails on Rikers Island, the inmates are generally "not healthy", according to Mr. G., an information officer for the city's correction authorities. [77]

The typical inmate, at least in nondrug cases, is "husky", Mr. G. said. But he suffers from poor nutrition, as dental checkups show. Both male and female inmates have a higher incidence of tuberculosis than normal. Some of the women are pregnant when sent to jail; typically, they have had no prenatal care.

Some of the defendants are so poor that jail can look good to them.

One day, it is cold and clammy. A man accused of disorder­ly conduct is brought before the judge. The prosecution case is weak. The Legal Aid lawyer wants the case thrown out.

The defendant, however, wants to plead guilty and be sentenced to 15 days in jail. He has no money, he explains, and his welfare application has not yet gone through.

The Legal Aid attorney demurs.

The defendant says to the Legal Aid lawyer: "If you don't plead me guilty and get me some time in jail, I'm going to punch you in the mouth."

A compromise is quickly reached. The defendant pleads guilty; he is sentenced to five days in jail.

(From newspapers)

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