Доклад фао по рыбному хозяйству и аквакультуре №926   




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44. Watercourses suitable for fi shing are one of the national treasures in Finland. Of all the countries of 
Europe, the proportion of watercourses of the total land area is highest there, viz. 9.3 %. Watercourses 
consist of several hundreds of kilometers long chains of interconnected lakes. The total number of lakes 
exceeds 187 000, of which 47 have a surface area larger than 100 km2. Institutions, in particular legislation 
and property rights, play an essential role in Finnish inland fi sheries and the related administrative 
system is structured on the basis of this fact. 
45. Various interests related to industrial and leisure activities have a stake in our waters, fi sheries in 
particular among them. Fish stocks are harvested both by commercial and recreational fi shers. The total 
recreational catch amounted to 42 million kg, of which 75 per cent was taken in inland waters. Perch 
and pike made up over half of the catch. In commercial harvesting marine fi sheries dominates. However, 
it should be noted that even though the contribution of commercial inland catch is only 4% in terms of 
volume, it is 21% in terms of value. Altogether the share of inland catch is 66% of the total value of the 
Finnish capture fi sheries. Food fi sh farming contributes essentially to total value of the fi shing sector. 
46. The institutional settings for fi sheries management encompass the relevant authorities, fi sheries 
regions management units, statutory fi shery associations and advisory organizations. The Ministry 
of Agriculture and Forestry is responsible for fi sheries matters. Subordinated to it are 11 regional 
governmental fi sheries authorities, Centres for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment. 
Fisheries region management units are institutions entirely unknown in the rest of Europe. A fi sheries 
region constitutes a participatory system for relevant interest groups and occupies a central position in 
the administrative system set up in the Fisheries Act. They represent an intermediate level of public 
administration; they have public duties, but they are not an offi cial branch of the government. Authority 
of the regions lies in its annual meeting. In the membership the statutory fi sheries associations dominate, 
as they often comprise even 80-90% of the members. Associations of commercial and recreational 
fi shers both have their representatives, but they are in a minority position. In the case where the State 
owns waters in the geographical area of the region, it has membership. 
47. Fisheries regions prepare and adopt management plans for their waters. They collect data on fi shing 
and draw up regulations governing fi shing practices (including mainly restrictions concerning the mesh 
size of gillnets, increasing the minimum size of fi sh or crayfi sh species from that enacted in a decree, 
and closed seasons). Regions supervise fi shing and carry out managerial assignments. Although the 
formation of the regions is mandatory, regions are quite free to choose their own ways of carrying out 
their public duties and other activities. 
48. Legislation is an important tool to improve fi sheries management. Its goal is stated in the Fisheries 
Act (286/82) to the effect that the maximum sustainable productivity should be obtained from water 
areas when engaged in fi shing. This goal integrates fi sheries management into the wider concept of the 
sustainable use of renewable natural resources. The concept of productivity, traditionally interpreted 
biologically, is presently considered also to encompass social dimensions, including economic effi ciency 
and value judgments. 
49. Both land and water areas are subject to private ownership and the fi shing right is bound to land 
ownership. The land parceling system has resulted in a mosaic-like structure of ownership units for 
inland fi shing grounds. The proprietor of each fi shing ground is usually a shareholders association for 
areas held in common by a registered village. There are 10 500 registered villages in Finland, and the 
number of shareholding estates in a village may vary between two to several thousand. Consequently, 
in a single lake there may be hundreds of owners. This joint possession of privately owned waters is 
peculiar to Finland and to some extent, Sweden. 
50. In 2006, there were over 1.8 million recreational fi shers in about one million households in Finland. 
About 230 000 fi shers participated in fi shing only by rowing or steering boat. The proportion of 
recreational fi shers was 35 per cent, indicating a decline from the long term rate of 40%. Forty-seven 
per cent of men and 25 per cent of women engaged in fi shing. Fishing was the most, or almost the most, 
important hobby for 76 000 fi shers. The high participation rate can be explained by good availability 
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