1 Old English Literature. Norman Romances




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Раздел 1 Literature of Great Britain in Anglo-Saxon Period and Middle Ages

Глоссарий:

1. Romanticism – freedom from restraint or convention in treating any subject

2.Classic – well-known and important because of a long history

3.Realism – the showing or describing of life as it really is, omitting nothing that is ugly or painful, and idealizing nothing

4.Abstract – separated from what is real, difficult to understand

5.Style – a particular way of writing

6.Belles-let-tres – literary writings contrasted with commercial, technical or scientific books

7.Verse – a group of lines of poetry forming a unit in rhyme scheme

8. Page – in medieval times a young man being trained for knighthood

9. Vintner – a person who sales wine

10. Squire – a young aspirant to knighthood serving as an attendant and knight

11.Picardy – a region in N.France

12. Doge– the chief magistrate in the former republics of Venice and Genoa

13 .Genoa –– a seaport in Italy

14. Genoese – a native inhabitant of Genoa

15. Petrarch – Italian poet and scholar, (1304-1374)

16. Boccaccio –– Italian writer and poet, (1313-1375)

17. JPJustice of the Peace (or Magistrate)

18.Carlisle – a city in and the country seat of Cumberland, in NW England

19.Queen Guenever

20.Valiant – brave, heroic

21.Churlish – peasantlike

22.Sir Lancelot – in this legend he is Arthur’s trusted companion and righthand man

23.Sir Kay – Arthur’s fosterbrother

Тема 1 Old English Literature. Norman Romances

Цель лекции: Формирование у студентов умения читать и понимать английский язык древнего времени и средних веков и передавать его в переводе на современный язык.

Вопросы к теме:
1.Beowulf

2.Norman Romances

3.Tristan and Isolda
Краткое содержание темы:
Beowulf is the heroic warrior who comes to the aid of King Hrothland whose hall is raided each night by thge water monster, Grandel. In the second part of thу narrative Beowulf rules as a king and meets his death after slaying a fire-breathing dragon.
Задания для самоконтроля:

Work in small groups. Firstly, read the text reflecting A.Gurevich’s views on the epic poem Beowulf. Then divide the text into logical parts. After that make a list of Russian kea words and phrases and find their English equivalents.
Литература:

  1. British Literature and Culture, СПб, 1997

  2. Английская и американская литература: Курс лекций, СПб.:Корона принт, 2004


Тема 2 Father of English Poetry

Цель лекции: Формирование у студентов лингвострановедческой компетенции необходимых коммуникативных намерений в профессиональной деятельности, в сфере межкультурного общения путем изучения истоков первых источников английской литературы.
Вопросы к теме:

1.Biography

2.The Canterbury Tales

Краткое содержание темы:

Jeorffrey Chaucer was born in or near1300 in Yorkshire. He was a page in the household of Elizabeth, Countess of Ulster, wife of Duke Lionel, Edward, III’son. John Chaucer, his father was relatively wealthy, a vintner and collector of wool duties.

When Chaucer was about 15, he was un France as a squire, on a military operation in which he was taken prisoner. The king paid a lot of money towards his ransom.

He held a number of positions at court and in the king’s service, and traveled abroad on numerous diplomatic missions. French was an official language at court and in the king’s service: the Queen, Philippa of Hainault, was a Frenchwoman. When 25 she accompanied the next son of Edward III, John of Gaunt, on a raid in Picardy.

Then in 1372 Chaucer went on a more important and, for his vocation as a poet, very significant journey to I tally. The purpose of this visit was to negotiate with the Dodge of Genoa. A port of entry in England for Genoese merchants. He went to Florence on the King’s business and probably other places as he is reported to have met Petrach.

Задания для самоконтроля: Middle EnglishLanguage 

1. Define the language Chaucer wrote and its peculiarities. What other languages he could write?

2. Find out what social strata Chaucer belonged to and its influence on his writings.

Литература:

  1. British Literature and Culture, СПб, 1997

  2. Английская и американская литература: Курс лекций, СПб.:Корона принт, 2004



Тема 3 The Arthurian Traditions in British Heroic Myths and Literature
Цель лекции: Формирование у студентов лингвострановедческой компетенции необходимых коммуникативных намерений в профессиональной деятельности, в сфере межкультурного общения.

Вопросы к теме:

  1. Sir Thomas Malory as the creator of the Arthuriad in the 15th century.

  2. King Arthur’s biography since childhood till becoming the King of Britain.

  3. The Round Table and its knights.

  4. The search for the Saint Grail and Excalibur in Celtic legends.

Краткое содержание темы:

Arthur was the son of Uther and was brought up by Ector at the behest of Merlin. He became King of Britain after pulling the sword from the stone. He founded the Round Table, married the Guinevere and set about making the kingdom stable and law-abiding. Later, his wife was sentenced to burning for her intrigue with Lancelot. The legend is considered to have great influence on the literature of English-speaking countries all over the world, and is still popular, especially in cinematography.
Задания для самоконтроля:

  1. Make an illustrated glossary of the Arthurian legends.

  2. Make a Russian summary of the theme.

Литература:

  1. British Literature and Culture, СПб, 1997

  2. Английская и американская литература: Курс лекций, СПб.:Корона принт, 2004


Раздел 2 Literature of Great Britain in Renaissance and Resurrection periods

Глоссарий:

1. Comedy – a play for the theatre, dealing with life and character in a humorous way, usually with a happy ending.

2. Historical novel – a piece of literature dealing with real events in history.

3. Tragedy – that genre of drama in which the chief characters are driven by circumstances or by their own natures to dreadful suffering, especially mental suffering, and death.

4. Plot – the plan of a novel, play, story, poem, etc.
Тема 4 All the World’s a Stage: William Shakespeare.

Цель лекции: Формирование у студентов лингвострановедческой компетенции необходимых коммуникативных намерений в профессиональной деятельности, в сфере межкультурного общения путем изучения биографии и творчества великого английского писателя Уильяма Шекспира.
Вопросы к теме:

  1. Shakespeare’s biography (all possible variants)

  2. Comedies

  3. Histories (British History in Shakespeare’s plays).

  4. Tragedies

Краткое содержание темы:

The person of W. Shakespeare arouses notorious interest even nowadays. He was supposed to be a simple butcher first, then it was claimed that all his masterpieces were the result of a huge work of a talented group of writers, poets, playwrights of his time. So, Shakespeare started as a writer of historic (Henry VI, Richard III), comic (The Comedy of Errors) and tragic (Romeo and Juliet, A Midsummer Night’s play, Othello) plays. The style of the writer is refined, sensuous and perfect as it can be, that’s why Shakespeare is considered to be one of the most outstanding writers in the world up to the present.

Задания для самоконтроля:

  1. Give a summary of one of Shakespeare’s historical novels, comedies or tragedies.

  2. Find and summarize the information about Shakespeare’s biography.

  3. Give language peculiarities of the English of Shakespeare and demonstrate the samples.

Литература:

  1. British Literature and Culture, СПб, 1997

  2. Английская и американская литература: Курс лекций, СПб.:Корона принт, 2004


Тема 5 Daniel Defoe

Цель лекции: Формирование у студентов лингвострановедческой компетенции необходимых коммуникативных намерений в профессиональной деятельности, в сфере межкультурного общения на примере творчества Даниеля Дефо в период колонизации и расширения торговых отношений Великобритании с внешним миром.

Вопросы к теме:

  1. Defoe’s biography and its influence on his writing.

  2. The main interests reflected in his works (politics, economics, supernatural, history, etc.)

  3. The influence of the novel “Robinson Crusoe” on the later British literature.


Краткое содержание темы:

Daniel Defoe was born as the son of Alice and James Foe. His father was a city tradesman and member of the Butchers’ Company. James Foe's stubborn Puritanism (the Foes were Dissenters - Protestants who did not belong to the Anglican Church) comes through occasionally in Defoe's writing. He studied at Charles Morton's Academy, London. Although his Nonconformist father intended him for the ministry, Defoe plunged into politics and trade, traveling extensively in Europe. Throughout his life, Defoe also wrote about mercantile projects, but his business ventures failed and left him with large debts, amounting to over seventeen thousand pounds. This burden shadowed the remainder of his life, which he once summoned: "In the School of Affliction I have learnt more Philosophy than at the Academy, and more Divinity than from the Pulpit: In Prison I have learnt to know that Liberty does not consist in open Doors, and the free Egress and Regress of Locomotion. I have seen the rough side of the World as well as the smooth, and have in less than half a Year tasted the difference between the Closet of a King, and the Dungeon of Newgate." When the Tories fell from power, Defoe continued to carry out intelligence work for the Whig government. In his own days Defoe was regarded as an unscrupulous, diabolical journalist. Defoe used a number of pen names, including ‘Eye Witness,’ ‘T.Taylor,’ and ‘Andrew Morton, Merchant.’ Defoe was one of the first to write stories about believable characters in realistic situations using simple prose. He achieved literary immortality when, in April 1719, he published Robinson Crusoe, which was based partly on the memoirs of voyagers and castaways, such as Alexander Selkirk, who spent four years and four months on his island. The first edition was printed in London by a publisher of popular books, W. Taylor. No author's name was given.

Задания для самоконтроля:

  1. Give a detailed summary of Defoe’s biography.

  2. Dwell upon the themes he touched upon in his writing.

  3. Interpret the most well-known novel of Defoe “Robinson Crusoe”.

Литература:

  1. British Literature and Culture, СПб, 1997

  2. Английская и американская литература: Курс лекций, СПб.:Корона принт, 2004


Тема 5 Jonathan Swift

Цель лекции: Формирование у студентов лингвострановедческой компетенции необходимых коммуникативных намерений в профессиональной деятельности, в сфере межкультурного общения на примере творчества Jonathan Swift в период колонизации и расширения торговых отношений Великобритании с внешним миром.
Вопросы к теме:

  1. The biography of Jonathan Swift and its influence on his writing.

  2. The novel Gulliver’s travels as a satirical novel.

  3. Other literary works of Swift.


Краткое содержание темы:

Irish author and journalist, dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral (Dublin) from 1713, the foremost prose satirist in English language, Swift became insane in his last years, but until his death he was known as Dublin's foremost citizen. Swift's most famous works is Gulliver's Travels (1726), where the stories of Gulliver's experiences among dwarfs and giants are best known. Swift gave to these journeys an air of authenticity and realism and many contemporary readers believed them to be true. William Makepeace Thackeray once said of the author: "So great a man he seems to me, that thinking of him is like thinking of an empire falling." Swift's religious writing is little read today. His most famous works include THE BATTLE OF THE BOOKS (1697), exploring the merits of the ancients and the moderns in literature. The author himself pretends to be an objective chronicler of events, but his sympathies are more on the side of the ancients. A TALE OF A TUB (1704) was a religious satire. Swift once stated that "satire is a sort of glass, wherein beholders do generally discover everybody's face but their own." At its core the tale a simple narrative of a father who has triplets, Martin, Peter and Jack; they refer to different churches. The father is of course God. Upon his death, he leaves them each a coat which will grow with them. Swift finished the tale in 1697, but hesitated to publish it. Although the work eventually appeared anonymously, it established Swift's reputation. Gulliver's Travels (1726) - Defoe's novel about Robinson Crusoe had appeared in 1719 and in the same vein Swift makes Lemuel Gulliver, a surgeon and a sea captain, recount his adventures. In part one, Gulliver is wrecked on an island where human beings are six inches tall. The Lilliputians have wars, and conduct clearly laughable with their self-importance and vanities - these human follies only reduced into a miniature scale. Gulliver's second voyage takes him to Brobdingnag. "I cannot but conclude that the bulk of your natives to be the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth." He meets giants who are practical but do not understand abstractions. In the third voyage contemporary scientist are held up for ridicule: science is shown to be futile unless it is applicable to human betterment. Gulliver then travels to the flying island of Laputa and the nearby continent and capital of Lagado. There he meets pedants obsessed with their own special field and utterly ignorant of the rest of the life. Gulliver's Travels was a topical social satire, a work of propaganda, in which Swift wanted to show the consequences of humanity's refusal to be reasonable. It is still widely read all over the world - especially the two first books are children's favorites  and open to many interpretations.

Задания для самоконтроля:

  1. Give a detailed summary of Swift’s biography.

  2. Dwell upon the themes he touched upon in his writing.

  3. Interpret the most well-known novel of Defoe “Gulliver’s Travels”.

Литература:

  1. British Literature and Culture, СПб, 1997

  2. Английская и американская литература: Курс лекций, СПб.:Корона принт, 2004


Тема 6 Two Great Scotsmen in English Literature: Robert Burns and Sir Walter Scott.

Вопросы к теме:

1. The biography of Robert Burns and his literary career.

2. The biography of Sir Walter Scott and his literary career.

Краткое содержание темы:

Robert Burns as one of the greatest poets of the 18th century was born in the village of Alloway, Scotland, into a family of a poor farmer, but a man who valued knowledge. It was from his father that Robert received his learning and his love for books. His mother had a beautiful voice and taught Robert old Scottish songs and ballads which he later tuned into his best poems.

Robert Burns had not regular schooling, but his father engaged a teacher to educate him and his brother. This helped to get the future poet the most important parts of education. By the time he had reached manhood he had a good knowledge of English, he could read in French and learnt some Latin. In his mid-teens he began to write poetry in the Scottish dialect on themes suggested by the beautiful Scottish countryside.

The last years of his life were very hard. The hard daily work on the farm, the constant starvation finally undermined Burn’s health. He died on July 21,1796 at the age of 37. The house in Alloway, where he was born, has now been restored and is visited by thousands of people from all over the world.

Burns’s Literary work

My Heart’s in the Highlands

John Barleycorn

Auld Lang Syne

Oh, my Love’s like a red, red rose
Walter Scott, the father of English historical novel, was born in the family of a lawyer. His mother, the daughter of a famous Edinburgh physician and professor, was a woman of education and stirred her son’s imagination by her stories of the past as a world of living heroes. As Walter was lame and subjected to illnesses he spent much time on his grandfather’s farm near the river Tweed where he gained knowledge of the old Scotland traditions, legends and folk ballads.

It was only in 1827 that Walter Scott declared openly the authorship of his novels. Misfortune struck the great novelist when the publishing firm, where he had been partner went bankrupt and he had to pay a large sum of money. This affected his health and he died on September 21, 1832 at his estate.

It is considered that W.S. as a writer realized that ordinary people were the makers of history. His romantic love for the past made him create rich historical canvases with landscape and nature descriptions, as well as picturesque details of past ages. Critics say that the reader of Scott’s novels becomes, in a way, a contemporary of the epoch and a citizen of the country in which the events of the novel take place. His influence can be seen in world literature up today. Among his outstanding historical novels was Ivanhoe.

Задания для самоконтроля:

1. Complete the list of the most important dates in the lives of Robert Burns and Walter Scott.

2. “Translate” the metaphorical ballad “John Barleycorn” into prosaic story.

3. Try to complete the translation of the given paragraph from “Ivanhoe” into Russian.

Литература:

1. British Literature and Culture, СПб, 1997

2. Английская и американская литература: Курс лекций, СПб.:Корона принт, 2004
Раздел 3 Literature of Great Britain in the New Period. British Novelists, 1890-1929, Traditionalists.
Глоссарий:

  1. Allegory – a story or description of an object or notion used to teach or explain something in moral teaching.

  2. Irony – the expression of one’s meaning by using words that mean the direct opposite of what one intends to convey, in this way showing ridicule or contempt or a humorous attitude.

  3. Novel – a story with a plot, long enough to fill or more books, dealing with the lives of imaginary people (Cf. Fiction)

  4. Satire – a form of writing intended to make a person, idea, custom or society seem foolish or ridiculous.

  5. Symbolism – the use of symbols, i.e. signs, to express ideas in literature and art.

  6. Monologue – a long speech by one person in a conversation.


Тема 7 John Galsworthy, Joseph Conrad

Вопросы к теме:

  1. The historical background of the realism in literature.

  2. The peculiarities of Galsworthy’s style.

  3. The life and work of J. Conrad

Краткое содержание темы:

The forty years between 1890-1929 were the most fertile and diverse period of the British novel. During these years marked by Great War and changes in the social, political and economic life of Great Britain. The novel became a much broader reflector of the aims, confusions, concerns, ideas oft he British people. It was at that time that the novel in Britain established itself as the dominant literary genre.

John Galsworthy’s novels were closer to the traditions of the 19th century realist novels and revealed the changing social conditions in England. His realism doesn’t only lie in his capacity for making his hero part and parcel of his surroundings and convincing the reader of his typicality: he is a fine artist in reproducing the individual workings of his characters‘ minds.

Joseph Conrad is now widely accepted as one of the modernist masters of serious narrative fiction. Historically placed, he is a major figure in the translation from Victorian fiction to the more perplexed forms and values of the twentieth century. He started by writing exotic romances, a highly commercial popular form of late nineteenth century literature – many of his sources appear to be French.

Задания для самоконтроля:

  1. Translate an extract from “The Forsyte Saga” by Gallsworthy.

  2. Speak on the realism in the literature of the 19th century.

  3. Dwell upon “The Forsyte Saga” and its characters.

  4. Render the text in English using the following key words and word combinations:

to reveal, to depict, to expose, a theorist, an ob­server, bourgeoise, landlord, to warn, to become obvious, property, to be difficult to separate from, to consolidate one's rights, to be a security, continuity of the family, morality, a prejudice, hypocrisy, am­biguous.

В этом мире, все реальности которого раскрыты, объяснены, описаны, критике и разоблачены в произведениях литера­туры, мистер Голсуорси избирает темой своей книги Семью — институт, существующий, по моему мнению, так же давно, как самая старая, хотя не самая почтенная сказка. Но мистер Голсуорси не теоретик, а наблюдатель, и в поле его зрения попала семья определенного типа. Это семья буржуазная, вернее, ей место в рядах крупной буржуазии, о чем нас предупреждает подзаголовок романа, и подобные семьи можно видеть всюду и везде, если не сегодня, то еще вчера <...>.

<...> Прочность основы, на которой мистер Голсуорси строит свой превосходный роман, сразу становится очевидной. Ибо началась ли орга­низация общества с семьи, или с собственности, или с того и другого одновременно, так как вначале их, в сущности, трудно было отделить друг от друга, — совершенно ясно, что именно в тесном объединении этих двух институтов нашло общество путь к развитию, и именно в нем обрело оно надежду на спасение. Чувство собственности помогает Форсайтам упрочить их права и является залогом продолжения их рода. Это инстинкт, примитивный инстинкт. Практицизм Форсайтов возвел его в принцип; их идеализм превратил его в своего рода религию, под влиянием которой сформировались их понятия о счастье и благопристойности, их предрассудки и ханжество, скудные их мысли и даже самый строй их чувств. Жизнь в целом стала доступной их пониманию только в тех случаях, если ее можно было выразить на языке собственности. Удержать — приобрести, приобрести — удержать. Законы, мораль, искусство и наука, по их представлениям, не лишенным основания, посвящены достижению этой двойст­венной и, в то же время, единой цели. Таков их символ веры.

(Дж. Кордрат. «Джон Голсуорси»)

Literature:

1. British Literature and Culture, СПб, 1997

2. Английская и американская литература: Курс лекций, СПб.:Корона принт, 2004
Тема 8 Bernard Shaw

Вопросы к теме:

  1. Shaw as a dramatist.

  2. The peculiarities of Bernard Shaw’s style.

  3. Bernard Shaw as a publicist.

Краткое содержание темы:

When a great writer dies high in honor and in fame, criticism is for a while at a loss. Even now he begins to assume a position in English drama second only to Shakespeare. He built up his own new drama: true. Shaw’s drama gave a powerful impulse to developing of the English literature.

In his long period of dramatic writing, more than twice the length of Shakespeare’s Shaw displayed the many satiirical peculiarities of his period. The first of Shaw’s creative work consists of three cycles: “Unpleasant Plays”, “Pleasant Plays”, “Three Plays for Puritans”. The most famous work is “Pigmalion”, which is adored by thousands of readers nowadays. It is screened under the name of “My Fair Lady”.

The first period of Shaw's creative work consists of three cycles: "Unpleasant Plays" ("Widower's Hous­es,"1 1892; "The Eater of Hearts,"2 1893; "Mrs. War­ren's Profession,"3 1894); "Pleasant Plays" ("Arms and the Man,"4 1894; "Candida,"5 1894; "The Man of Destiny,"6 1895); "Three Plays for Puritans" ("The Devil's Pupil,"7 1896-1897; "Caesar and Cleopatra,"8 1898; "Captain Brassbaund's Address,"9 1899).

The high spirits which characterized his plays be­fore 1914, often bringing into his comedy a lively ele­ment of farce, did not appear so much afterwards. Instead something of grandeur and poetry found ex­pression in famous passages of "Saint Joan"10 and "Back to Methuselah."11 Before "Heartbreak House,"12 which was finished during the war, he had certainly never written a play with such deep underlying seriousness. He called it "a fantasia on English themes in the Rus­sian manner," by which he alluded to his being in­spired by Chekhov.

Bernard Shaw's publicist attitude towards the dra­ma demanded an effective language. His ideas are ex­pressed in short wise, witty sayings, aphorisms, as they are called. When writing on the social contradic­tions of the 20th century, he often uses striking para­doxes, which bring out his attitude to England's 19th century conventions. B. Shaw has introduced a new form of drama, the publicistic drama. His plays are suited for reading as much as for acting. He expresses his ideas not only through the individual characters but through the settings of the plays as well. Each play has a preface in which portraits of the persons in the play are drawn, and the setting described.

Задания для самоконтроля:

1. Complete the list of the most important dates in the life of Bernard Shaw.

2. Translate Shaw’s aphorisms.

3. Speak about Shaw’s best comedy “Pigmalion”.

Литература:

1. British Literature and Culture, СПб, 1997

2. Английская и американская литература: Курс лекций, СПб.:Корона принт, 2004

3. Английская литература 1890-1060, Флинт-Наука, 2000
Тема 9 John Boynton Priestley.

Вопросы к теме:

  1. The biography of John Boynton Priestley and its influence on his writing.

  2. The novel "Angel Pavement".

  3. Other literary works of John Boynton Priestley.


Краткое содержание темы:
J.B.Priestley, critic, essayist, storyteller, broad­caster, novelist and playwright, has the rare distinc­tion, for an Englishman, of being well known all over the world. He has the power to entertain and his plays in particular are the work of a man who provokes thought.

He was born in Bradford in 1894 and ever since his first appearance as an author in 1919, he has poured out a succession of books of very diverse kinds. At first it was as an essayist that he won recognition. Then, gradually, changing over to fiction, he achieved resounding success in 1929 with his long, episodic and robust novel "The Good Companions."1 It was what the schoolboys call "a smasher." It was twice the nor­mal length; it had a Dickensian scope as well near-Dickensian vigour, it had a host of characters and a swirl of movement. "The Good Companions" was also a smasher in its success. It was filmed and dramatized as well as selling vastly in book form in many coun­tries. The survey of Bruddersford, with which the book opens, is Priestley at his best and the unfolding pan­orama of small provincial towns with their moulder­ing theatres and concert halls, their drab hotels sus­tains the high level of social landscape.

The next novel "Angel Pavement"2 (1930) took its name from a typical side street, an alley which housed, among others none too prosperous, a firm of timber dealers, now in financial trouble. The atmosphere of gayety characteristic of the first novel is changed by sad humour. The ending of the book is bleak indeed, for all the employers of the broken timber firm are left in the air, the cold economic air of the nineteen-thirties, when unemployment cruelly swept the world. The period of "Angel Pavement" was, for millions of people, grey with fear, fear of never getting a job, fear of losing the job, and fear of an existence with­out security and without hope.

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