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2 Section 2
2.1 Предтекстовые упражнения
2.1.1 Вспомните, какие русские слова имеют те же корни, что и
следующие английские слова:
Activity, master, individual, absorb, distance, functional, central, traditional,
social, industrial, topography, position, cultural, active, circulation, public, diagram,
structure,communications, interest, reconstruct, adapt, control, natural, zone, fix,
2.1.2 Вспомните значения следующих английских слов и подберите к
ним соответствующий перевод из правого столбца:
2.1.3 Прочтите текст. Укажите, в каких абзацах дается определение
понятию «генеральный план». Выучите данные слова:
жилой дом; жилище
space for recreation
место для отдыха
Text. Town Planning
(1) That cities should have a plan is now admitted in the time of large-scale
construction and planmaking has become an everyday activity. The purpose of a
town plan is to give the greatest possible freedom to the individual. It does this by
controlling development in such a way that it will take place in the interests of the
(2) The new development absorbs or modifies an existing environment, and so before
it can be designed it is necessary to find out about that environment. It is also
necessary to do research of the trends of population growth, the distance from
work to home, the preferences for different types of dwelling, the amount of
sunshine in rooms, the degree of atmospheric pollution and so on. After the survey
is complete a forecast of future development is made in the form of a map, or
series of maps: the master plan or development plan. As no one can be certain
when the development is to take place and since a society is an organic thing, with
life and movement, the plan of a city must be flexible so that it may extend and
avoid congestion in every part.
(3) The plan is never a complete and fixed thing, but rather one that is continually
being adapted to the changing needs of the community for whom it is designed.
Until recent years town plans were always made as inflexible patterns, but history
has shown that a plan of this description breaks down in time.
(4) The flexible plan, based on a survey, is one of the best ideas that man has ever
had about the control of his environment.
(5) Most towns today have a characteristic functional pattern as follows: a central
core containing the principal shopping centre, business zones, surrounded by
suburbs of houses. Most town planners accept the traditional town pattern. In the
preparation of a master plan they are preoccupied with the definition of the town
centre, industrial areas and the areas of housing; the creation of open space for
recreation, the laying down of a pattern of main roads which run between the built-
up areas (thus leaving them free of traffic) and connect them to each other.
(6) The master plan thus has to define the ultimate growth of the town, but though
the master plan is a diagram, and even a flexible one, it is the structure upon which
all future development is to take place.
2.2 Упражнения к тексту
2.2.1 Вспомнив, какие русские слова имеют те же корни, что и
английские слова, подберите к ним эквивалент из правого столбца.
Образец: activity(активность) - деятельность.
2.2.2 К следующим английским словам подберите русские
2.2.3 Переведите следующие словосочетания:
Business zone, town pattern, population growth, development plan, road system, plan
making, town planner, housing area, shopping centre, public transport, recreation
2.2.4 Укажите, какие из данных предложений выражают главную
1 In the preparation of the master plan it is necessary to define the town zones.
2 All cities should have a plan.
3 Before a flexible plan is made it is necessary to find out about the existing
4 The master plan also defines places for active and passive recreation.
2.2.5 Укажите, к каким абзацам текста могут служить заголовками
данные предложения. Расположите их согласно последовательности
1 Features of the traditional town pattern.
2 The purpose of a master plan.
3 The purpose of a town plan.
4 What main points should be included in a survey.
2.2.6 В соответствии с содержанием текста дополните незаконченные
предложения одним из данных вариантов:
1 The purpose of a town plan is.........
a) to do research of the trends of population growth;
b) to give the greatest possible freedom to the individual;
c) to find out about the existing environment.
2 Before a town plan is designed, it is necessary.........
a) to renew and extend the dwellings, reconstruct the working places;
b) to make a forecast of future development in the form of a map;
c) to find out about the existing environment.
3 History has shown that a plan should be flexible, because .........
a) it should continually be adapted to the changing needs of the community;
b) it defines the position of schools, shopping centres and social centres;
c) it suggests the routes of public transport.
4 In the preparation of a master plan the planners are preoccupied with ........
a) the idea that in our time plan-making has become an everyday activity;
b) the definition of the town pattern and the laying down of a pattern of main
c) the necessity to determine the distance from work to home.
2.2.7 Составьте план к тексту из 5-ти пунктов.
2.2.8 Сверяясь с текстом, подберите нужное значение выделенных слов
в данных сочетаниях и переведите их.
Large-scale construction (1) ..... (шкала, масштаб, размер)
Everyday activity (1) ..... (ежедневный, повседневный, обычный)
In such a way (1) ..... (дорога, средство, способ, путь)
Development plan (2) ..... (развитие, усовершенствование, застройка)
Master plan (2) .... (главный, ведущий, руководящий, генеральный)
Most towns (5) .... (больше всего, самый, наибольший, большинство)
Town pattern (5) .... (образец, характер, структура)
То lay down the pattern (5) ..... .(уложить, составить, установить)
2.2.9 Определите, в каких предложениях "since" употреблено в качестве
союза и переводится "так как".
1 Since a society is an organic thing, the plan of a city must be flexible.
2 The plan is continually being adapted since it is never a complete thing.
3 The town has changed greatly since I saw it last.
4 Before a plan is designed it is necessary to find out about the existing environment
since a plan absorbs or modifies it.
5 Since the master plan takes into consideration the existing topography, it indicates
the areas for rest.
6 The master plan is very much like a diagram since it is never a complete and fixed
2.2.10 Переведите и найдите предложения, где слово "one"
употребляется во избежание повторения существительного.
1 The plan of a city must be flexible, as no one can be certain when the development
will take place.
2 A plan is never a complete and fixed thing, but rather one that is continually being
adapted to the changing needs of the society.
3 One should know that a good plan is the one that forecasts the future development.
4 One should use a new plan based on a survey, and not an old one.
5 A flexible plan, based on a survey, is one of the best ideas.
6 The practice of making flexible plans is progressive enough.
2.2.11 Переведите в тексте второй абзац письменно.
2.2.12 Укажите, какие из 3-х предложений (а, Ь, с) являются ответами на
1 Why is it necessary to make a survey of the existing environment ?
a) It is because no one is certain when the development is to take place.
b) It is because the new development absorbs or modifies the environment.
c) It is because growth is a law of life.
2 What does a survey consist in ?
a) It consists in completing the town's communications.
b) It consists in finding out about the environment, in research into the trends of
c) It consists in defining a place for recreation.
2.2.13 Опровергните следующие утверждения с точки зрения
Образец : Most town planners suggest quite new town patterns. - It's wrong. (It is
not right). Most town planners do not suggest quite new town patterns. According to
the text (As the text says), most town planners accept the traditional town patterns.
1 The purpose of a plan is to limit the active life of its population.
2 The plan is a complete and fixed thing, since the needs of the community do not
3 Growth is a law of life and town growth should not be controlled by any plan.
2.2.14 Переведите письменно со словарем данный текст за 25 минут.
Far or Near
In choosing a location of the satellite towns being planned in Russia preference is
given to the southern and south-eastern slopes of hills with big green belts and
reservoirs in the vicinity. A necessary condition in making the choice is the
availability of convenient means of communication with the city best of all being an
electrified railway line and a good automobile highway.
The distance of the satellite town from the city depends upon how well developed
the electrified railway and highway systems are. In the case of Moscow, which has
highly ramified networks running in all directions it is possible to locate the satellite
cities within 46 to 50 km, whereas in the case of Nizhny Novgorod, for example, the
sensible thing is to place them nearer.
It is taken into consideration that even there are some enterprises and offices of its
own in the satellite town, a certain portion of the population may still work in the
city; thus Russian architects are of the opinions that the town and city should not be
more than an hour's distance apart.
2.2.15 Прочтите текст про себя за 1 минуту и дайте ответ на данный
What places of rest does a master plan define ?
The master plan defines the pattern of the town and its relation to the topography.
It shows the principal areas and zones necessary for housing and industry.
Furthermore, it defines the principal zones in the town centre for civic, business and
As for the landscape, the master plan shows the agricultural areas surrounding the
town, it indicates the areas of natural landscape that should be left for passive
recreation; it also shows the active recreation areas necessary for the housing areas
and for the town as a whole.
As for the road system, it shows the principal roads connecting various zones
together; it suggests the routes of public transport and it may define the principal
Text A. From the History of Building
Many thousands of years ago there were no houses such as people live in today. In
hot countries people sometimes made their homes in the trees and used leaves to
protect themselves from rain or sun. In colder countries they dwelt in caves. Later
people left their caves and trees and began to build houses of different materials such
as mud, wood or stones.
Later people found out that bricks made of mud and dried in the hot sunshine
become almost as hard as stones. In ancient Egypt especially, people learned the use
of these sun-dried mud bricks. Some of their buildings are still standing after several
thousands of years.
The ancient Egyptians discovered how to cut stone for building purposes. They
erected temples, palaces and huge tombs. The greatest tomb is the stone pyramid
of Khufu ['ku'fu], the king of Egypt. The ancient Egyptians often erected their huge
buildings without thinking of their usefulness. The ancient Greeks also understood
the art of building with cut stone, and their buildings were beautiful as well as useful.
They often used pillars, partly for supporting the roofs and partly for decoration.
Parts of these ancient building can still be seen today in Greece.
During the last hundred years many new methods of building have been
discovered. One of the most recent discoveries is the usefulness of steel as a building
Nowadays when it is necessary to have a very tall building, the frame of it is first
built in steel and then the building is completed in concrete. Concrete is an artificial
kind of stone, much cheaper than brick or natural stone and much stronger than they
2.3 Упражнения к тексту А
2.3.1 Выберите правильный вариант и закончите предложения.
1 People first lived in .........
a) houses b) palaces c) trees or caves
2 Egyptian pyramids are made of .........
a) stone b) wood c) bricks
3 The cheapest building material is .........
a) wood b) bricks c) concrete
4 The ancient Greeks knew the art of building with .........
a) steel b) cut stone c) concrete
5 Nowadays very tall and huge buildings are made of .….....
a) steel and concrete b) bricks c) stone
2.3.2 Закончите следующие предложения:
1 The ancient Greeks used pillars for .........
2 We usually make houses of .........
3 Bricks are made of .........
4 The ancient Egyptians made their homes of .........
2.3.3 Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1 1 .Where did people live many thousands of years ago?
2 .Did ancient people use wood or bricks to build their houses?
3 3. What kinds of buildings did the ancient Egyptians erect?
4 What did the ancient Greeks use pillars for?
5 ls steel used as a building material?
6 What kinds of building materials do you know ?
2.3.4 Переведите текст на русский язык со словарем:
Relics of Wooden Architecture
The carpenters of the ancient Russian city of Novgorod were famed for their skill.
Carpenters and builders, they erected peasant homes, fortress walls and towers,
windmills, churches, chapels and even palaces. They built thousands of villages and a
large number of towns mainly with axes. In old times practically all the buildings in
Novgorod were made of timber.
Relics of the carpenters' skill - art of truly folk origin - have been preserved to our
days. To establish the artistic worth of old structures a close study is made of all that
is left and of books and even legends passed on from generation to generation.
The rich finds led to the decision to collect and put in one place all the more
valuable works by unknown architects of the Novgorod area.
3 Section 3
3.1 Предтекстовые упражнения
3.1.1 а) Вспомните, какие русские слова имеют те же корни, что и
следующие английские слова:
modern, fact, organism, symptom, analyze, stereotype, dictate, functions, contrast,
horizontal, activities, vertical, topography, formulate, focus, despotic, typical, parade,
soldiers, automatically, standard, result, ignore.
b) Посмотрите, в каких случаях при переводе лучше использовать
русский синоним. (Например: focus-фокус или центр).
3.1.2 Укажите, какие из данных слов являются прилагательными и
matter, later, soldier, power, longer, quarter, planner, older, builder.
3.1.3 Прочтите текст. Укажите, какие четыре вопроса
рассматриваются в нем. Запомните следующие слова.
to have an influence on
расположение, планировка, план
эпоха Возрождения, Ренессанс
святилище, убежище, заповедник
Text. City Architecture
(1) Any community consists of examples of architecture but in another sense the
community itself is the form of architectural planning. A true community grows and
changes, and its change is a symptom of its life.
(2) In Europe and in the original settlements of North and South America the
modern city grew up around an older core, and down to our days these cores have
continued to have a powerful influence on new plans. Certain urban lay-outs which
have been repeated automatically are still looked upon as standard forms.
(3) The medieval town was a combination of camp, market, and sanctuary. The
necessity for protection colored all its institutions, dictated the use of a defensive site
on hillside or waterside. It led to the erection of walls separating the town from the
country and allowing access only through guarded gates. The social functions of the
medieval town were concentrated in a square. Medieval builders, in their handling of
space and their bold contrasting of horizontal and vertical, still have something to
teach the twentieth-century architect who knows no way of achieving height except
by erecting skyscrapers.
(4) The Baroque (or so-called Renaissance) city was formulated in the fifteenth
and sixteenth centuries and was actually built in the seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries. In the Baroque plan the old medieval market square is transformed into the
traffic circle which the pedestrian crosses at a great risk. The focus of this plan is no
longer the church but the palace, the seat of a one-sided, despotic power. In contrast
with the medieval town, the Baroque city demands flat sites, straight continuous
streets, and uniform building and roof lines. It was built for armies and wheeled
vehicles. The typical Baroque form might be called the parade city: not only its
soldiers but also its citizens and its buildings are on parade. Whatever is visible must
submit to this geometry; the city is organized for show.
(5) The Baroque plan, unlike the medieval, left a deep imprint on later
generations; it became standard throughout Western civilization. This style preferred
straight streets to curved ones ignoring the topography.
3.2 Упражнения к тексту
3.2.1 Подберите соответствующий перевод к данным английским
видимый, в поле зрения
to concentrate (3)
to transform (4)
3.2.2 Укажите, к каким абзацам текста могут служить заголовками
данные предложения. Расположите их согласно последовательности
1 City designed for protection and sanctuary.
2 A true community is a living organism.
3 City designed for expression and extension of power in every form.
4 Planning of communities is the form of architectural planning.
5 City's change is a symptom of its life.
6 Uncritical imitation of Baroque principles.
3.2.3. Укажите, какие из данных предложений относятся к описанию
средневекового города и какие - к городу эпохи Возрождения.
1 The town was a combination of camp, market, and sanctuary.
2 The city demands flat sites, straight continuous streets, and uniform building lines.
3 The necessity for protection led to the erection of walls separating the town from
4 The city is organized for show.
5 The city was formulated in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
6 The focus of this plan is no longer the church, but the palace, the seat of despotic
7 It was actually built in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
8 It might be called the parade city.
9 Its plan left a deep imprint on later generations; it became standard throughout
10 It was built for armies and wheeled vehicles.
11 The social functions were concentrated in a square.
12 The square was dominated variously by a church, a town hall, and later by a
3.2.4 Используя упражнения 4 и 6, дайте краткую характеристику
средневекового города и города эпохи Возрождения (на русском языке).
3.2.5 Заполните пропуски требуемой формой глагола страдательного
(пассивного) или действительного (активного) залога.
1 Someone must ......... (plan, be planned) where streets are to ......... (run, be run),
parks are to .........(lay out, be laid out), and industrial facilities are to .........
(furnish, be furnished).
2 The medieval city ......... (designed, was designed) for pedestrians.
3 Down to our days these cores ......... (have continued, have been continued) to
have a powerful influence on new plans.
4 The social functions of the medieval town ......... (concentrated, were
concentrated) in a square.
5 Certain urban lay-outs which ......... (have repeated, have been repeated)
automatically ......... (still look upon, are still looked upon) as standard forms.
6 Where the topography ......... (supplies, is supplied) differences of level, the
architecture enhances the vertical dimension.
7 The necessity for protection ......... (dictated, was dictated) the use of a defensive
site on hillside.
8 The Baroque city ......... (formulated, was formulated) in the seventeenth century.
9 The city ......... (organizes, is organized) for show.
10 Where verticality is absent, the architecture ......... (makes up, is made up) for it.
11 The typical Baroque form might ......... (call, be called) the parade city.
12 The old medieval market square ......... (transforms, is transformed) into a traffic
13 The baroque plan ......... (left, was left) a deep imprint on later generations.
3.2.6 Переведите отмеченные в тексте "ing-forms", обращая внимание на
их роль в предложении. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся.
3.2.7 Сверяясь с текстом, подберите из правого столбца нужное значение
для выделенных слов в данных английских сочетаниях.
... in another sense the community ...(1) кроме как
... down to our days ...
... except by erecting ...(3)
в известном смысле
... is no longer the church ... (4)
... whatever is visible ...(4)
в отличие от
... in contrast with ... (4)
... unlike the medieval ...(5)
3.2.8 Вставьте данные внизу слова в нужной форме в соответствии с их
функцией в предложении.
1 The ......... for protection ......... all its institutions, ......... the use of a defensive site.
2 The social ......... of the medieval town were ......... in a square.
to colour, colour; to necessitate, necessity; to dictate, dictatorship; to function,
function; to concentrate, concentration.
3.2.9 Переведите 1 и 2 абзацы текста письменно.
3.2.10 Образуйте прилагательные от данных слов, используя
соответственно суффиксы -ful, -а1. Переведите их на русский язык.
help, harm, politics, power, origin, architecture.
3.2.11 Прочтите текст про себя за 1 минуту. Определите, какие
недостатки современного городского планирования упоминаются в нем.
Nowhere, perhaps, are the limitations of an uncritical imitation of Baroque
principles so contradictory as in the revival and expansion of the L'Enfant plan for
During the second half of the nineteenth century a Baroque revival took place in
One of the great limitations of the late Baroque tradition, as carried into the
modern city by planners in New York, is that its social objectives, are as narrow as its
functional requirements; hence its triumphs have been limited to park ways, drives,
parks, and public buildings, since it has no adequate formula for dealing with the city
as a whole.
The present-day municipal engineers and city planning authorities deal only with
the two-dimensional plan. But planning is not separable from building. Planning, to
be effective, means responsible collective over-sight of the whole process, to the end
of creating a harmonious social and aesthetic whole. Lacking such collective
purposes, modern cities, from Boston to Bombay, from Buenos Aires [‘bwen∂s
‘∂IrIz] to Birmingham, are-what they so unfortunately are.
Text A. What is Architecture?
Architecture is the art and profession of designing buildings. The word
"architecture" also has a historical meaning. In that respect, it may refer either to the
building style of a particular culture or to an artistic movement. For example, we
speak of Greek architecture or Gothic architecture.
Architects design many kinds of structures. For instance, they design houses,
schools, hotels, hospitals, stadiums, factories, office buildings, theatres, and houses of
worship. Architects also design monuments dedicated to the memory of important
events and people. The beauty of a city or town is largely determined by the quality
of its architecture.
Architects must work with other people to produce their designs. All architects
design a building for a client and must consider the client's wishes and needs. They
make drawings and models that show how the building will look after it is
completed. They also work with the many different contractors who actually build the
Architecture is one of the oldest art forms. It dates from prehistoric times and is
founded in almost all societies. A society's architecture reflects the values and ideals
of its people. For example, the ancient Greeks stressed discipline and harmony in life.
The beautifully proportioned Greek temple reflects this emphasis on harmonious
In designing a building, architects think in terms of space, planes and openings.
They consider a building as space enclosed by planes-that is by the surface of walls,
floors and ceilings. Openings include doorways, windows and archways. At various
times in history, architects have considered certain shapes more beautiful than others
and have emphasized them in their designs. The most popular shapes have included
the square, rectangle, and sphere. Architects often combine two or more shapes in
A building should be pleasing to look at, but it should also enable people to live or
work in it comfortably. In addition, the structure should be well built so that it can
stand a long time without expensive maintenance. To create an attractive and efficient
building, an architect must balance three major elements: function, appearance, and
3.3 Упражнения к тексту A
3.3.1 Задайте вопросы к подчеркнутым частям предложений.
3.3.2 Составьте план к тексту из 5-ти пунктов.
3.3.3 Переведите письменно отрывок " ... In designing a building ...
appearance and durability".
3.3.4 Составьте диалог по тексту, используя следующие выражения:
I quite agree with you.
Я полностью согласен с тобой.
I suppose (think, consider), that ...
Я полагаю, что ...
You are wrong.
I shouldn't say that ...
Я бы не сказал, что ...
It seems to me ...
Мне кажется ...
4 Section 4
Text 1. Building Construction
The construction of the homes and buildings in which people live and work has
been a major industry ever since early human beings first made huts of sticks, mud,
or rocks. Methods of building construction have been constantly improved since
those first crude structures. Modern skyscrapers can be built within a year or two.
Prefabricated buildings, with their various parts made in factories by assembly-line
methods, can be built in a day or two, but are rarely as durable as traditionally made
A building has two main parts, the substructure (the part below ground) and the
superstructure (the part above ground). The substructure is usually called the
foundation. It includes the basement walls, even though these may extend above the
Both the substructure and the superstructure help to support the load (weight) of
the building. The dead load of a building is the total weight of all its parts. The live
load is the weight of the furniture, equipment, stored material, and occupants of a
building. In some regions, the wind load of a building is important if the structure is
to withstand storms. The snow load may also be an important factor. In some areas,
buildings have to be constructed to withstand earthquake shocks.
Foundations are the chief means of supporting a building. They carry both the
dead and live loads. There are three main types of foundations: (1) spread, (2) pier,
and (3) pile.
Spread foundations are long slabs of reinforced concrete that extend beyond the
outer edges of the building. Such foundations are not so firm as those based on solid
rock. The footing areas in contact with the soil must be of sufficient size to spread the
load safely over the soil and to avoid excessive or uneven settlement. Any such
settlement would cause walls to crack or doors to bind.
Pier foundations are heavy columns of concrete that go down through the loose
topsoil to a bed of firm rock. This bed may also be sand, gravel, or firm clay. If the
bed consists of firm clay, the pier is usually enlarged at the base, to increase the
Pile foundations are long, slender columns of steel, concrete, or wood. Machines,
called pile drivers hammer them down as deep as 60 metres to a layer of solid soil or
rock. Workers can tell when the columns reach their proper depth by the number of
blows the pile driver needs to drive the columns a few centimetres deeper. These
columns transmit the building load to the supporting soil. Most skyscrapers are
supported by rock foundations.
Text 2. Types of construction
In load-bearing-wall construcilon. the walls transmit the load to the foundation.
In skeleton construction, all loads are transmitted to the foundation by a rigidly
constructed framework made up of beans, girders and columns. This skeleton carries
the roof, walls, and floors, together with their loads. Load-bearing-wall construction
is usually most economical for buildings less than four storeys high, but skeleton
construction is better for taller buildings. All buildings in the skyscraper class are of
skeleton construction. The first building to have skeleton construction was the 10-
storey Home Insurance Building in Chicago. Completed in 1885, this building was
the world's first skyscraper.
Many parts of a building have no structural function. Partition walls and curtain
walls carry only their own weight and serve to divide the interior of a building or to
keep out the elements. Other nonload-bearing parts include windows, doors, stairs,
In one method of construction, called tilt-up construction, concrete wall panels
are formed at ground level. Cranes or derricks then lift them into position. Lift-slab
construction may be used for positioning roof and floor slabs. These slabs are
formed with concrete at ground level, within the framework of the building. They are
then lifted into place using hydraulic jacks.
Beams, girders, and columns support a building much like bones support the
body. They form the skeleton of the superstructure, and bear the weight of the walls
and each floor of the building. Beams and girders run horizontally. Girders are
usually larger than beams. Closely spaced beams are called joists, especially in
wooden buildings. Purlins are small beams that brace rafters or girders and help
provide the structure to support roofs. Beams above windowand door openings are
called lintels. Slabs are beams whose width is greater than their depth.
Columns are heavy vertical supports that carry the load of beams and girders.
Trusses consist of many wood or steel supports that are connected in triangular
patterns. They provide the strength and rigidity to span large distances with relatively
small amounts of material. Arches are curved supports that usually extend over
Text 3. Prefabricated Construction
Prefabrication has become an important part of most types of building
construction. Prefabricated sections of a building are produced in large quantities in a
factory and then shipped to various construction sites. This procedure may allow
work to continue despite poor weather conditions and should reduce any waste in
time and material at the site. As a result, costs are lowered and construction time
Many types of building sections can be prefabricated. For example, entire walls
may be prefabricated for a wooden-frame house. Huge wooden arches are
prefabricated for use as supports in churches, gymnasiums, and other buildings.
Concrete beams, floors, roofs, and wall panels may be precast for many types of
structures. Entire buildings may be constructed in a factory and then transported to
the desired location.
Prefabricated structures are sometimes made by a process called modular
construction, first used in Japan. Modular construction refers to the use of a standard
measurement as the basis for all building materials. The size of the module may vary
considerably from country to country. In the United States, the basic module is 10
centimetres. All building parts are designed so that each dimension equals this
measurement. Modular parts are also used in buildings that are not prefabricated.
Text 4. Building Stone
Building stone ranks in importance with steel as a construction material. Stone is
used for the foundations, walls, and steps of buildings, for the support of piers and
bridges, and for finishing and decorating all types of structures. Crushed stone
accounts for most building stone used in construction. Crushed stone is quarried stone
crushed into small pieces suitable for such uses as the surfacing of roads and
Dimension stone is stone in natural blocks or slabs cut in definite shapes and
sizes. Builders expect good dimension stone to last at least a hundred years. The best
dimension stone has the fewest pores or air cells, making it able to resist the wearing
effects of weather. Stone with large, open pores will chip off if water freezes and
expands in the pores. Dimension stone includes granite, limestone, sandstone, marble
Granite is one of the strongest of all the building stones. However, it is difficult to
cut and handle because it is extremely hard. It is used extensively in the construction
of public buildings. Granite can be polished to a glossy finish, and is an excellent
background for carvings and lettering.
Limestone is a hard and lasting building stone that can be cut easily and shaped
with saws, planes, and even lathes. These buff or gray stones are sometimes placed
over the rough stonework of a building to make an attractive surface. Limestone is
also used to tile floors, and for sills, steps and trimming.
Marble is the most elegant building stone. Pure marble is white, streaked with
veins of black, gray, green, pink, red, and yellow. Builders use marble to make
monuments and tombstones, and to decorate stairways, hearths, floors, and panelling.
Slate is fine-grained rock that can be split easily into thin slabs and used for
roofing shingles and flagstone flooring.
Text 5. Constructing a skyscraper
New methods in the design and construction of skyscrapers have been closely
related to the development of computers. Engineers use computers to solve the
complex mathematical problems involved in such construction projects. Computers
do this work quickly by breaking the design down into a limited number of
Before construction begins, engineers determine the strength of the soils that will
lie underneath the new building. With this information, they can design the proper
foundation. After the building site is cleared, levelled and drained of water,
excavation (digging) begins. Mobile diggers usually excavate the foundation.
Ground made of rock may be excavated by blasting.
After the excavation is finished, the footings (base) and the superstructure are
built. Most steel used in the superstructure, such as beams, girders, and columns,
comes prefabricated. Each piece of steel should have a number indicating the exact
place where it should be used. When the steel is raised into place, workers fasten the
pieces together temporarily with bolts. Later, welders and riveters join these pieces
Many kinds of cranes and derricks are used in the construction of skyscrapers. The
two main kinds are mobile cranes and tower cranes. Mobile cranes are mounted on
trucks or specia vehicles and can manoeuvre around the outside of the building to
hoist materials and equipment from various locations. Tower cranes are supported on
a steel tower erected next to or inside a building's framework.
After workers complete the superstructure and outside walls, the building is ready
to be finished, decorated and furnished.
Список использованных источников
1 Е.В. Горбунова. Пособие по английскому языку для студентов строительных
ВУЗов. - М.: Высшая школа, 1985. - 159 с.
2 Н.И. Ажищев, Ф.С. Суэта. Пособие по английскому языку для инженерных
специальностей ВУЗов. - М.: Высшая школа, 1989. - 95 с.
3 Н.А. Бонк. Английский для международного сотрудничества. - М.: изд. СП
“Прин-Ди”, 1992. - 379 с.
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